本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-9-26 17:51 编辑 |
“SystematicAnatomy” is a part of “Human Anatomy”. It is “Human Anatomy” basedon the description of various systems of human bodies such as “movement system,digestion system, respiratory system, urination system, reproductive system,internal excretion system, re-cycle system, sensing system and nerve system”.
“Cytobiology” is a science dealing with theforms and functions of cells from the point of view of medical science, fromthe perspective of cell level, microscopic level and sub-microscopic level.
“Medicalphysics” basically covers all of the fundamental theoreticalknowledge,and their major application, of physics which are required by theacademic major of medicines
“Medical Organicchemistry” has reinforced the description ofthe reaction mechanisms of organic chemistry, the transitional state,intermediate state, stereochemistry and electronic effect, has introduced andexplored the frontiers and hot topics of the some of the issues in relation toorganic chemistry in the life process, in order to broaden the vision of thestudents.
“Histology &Embryology” is a science dealing with theresearch of body micro-structures and their associated functions. Embryology ismainly dealing with the research of the growth process starting from theimpregnated eggs to the new born babies and its mechanisms, including thegeneration of reproductive cells, impregnations and the growth of fetus, andthe relationship in between fetus and the mother body, prenatal deformity.
“Physiology” is a branch ofbiological science, which is based on the research of the life activity,phenomena and functions of all parts of bodies of the biological bodies, as aresearch subject. Physiology is a branch of biology which is to research thenormal regular patterns of life activities of living bodies/organsims. Livingorganisms covers from the simplest micro organisms to the most complicatedhuman bodies.
“Biochemistry andMolecular biology” is not only the fundamentalsof science dealing with living organisms but also the frontiers of sciencedealing with living organisms. Biochemistry and Molecular biology are toexplore the nature of life, which is toresearch the structure and function, and the metabolism and adjustment ofmolecules of living organisms.
“Immunology”is a study which studies the structure and function of living organisms’ immunestructures, including organisational structures of immune system, theidentification of itself and others by the immune system and reaction, therejection effect of foreign objects by the immune system, the engendering,maintenance, destruction of immune tolerance and its mechanisms. Immunology, inaddition to the above fields, would discuss the pathological process and itsmechanisms of immune function by different, and the application of Immunologytheories, methods and techniques in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment ofdisease.
“MedicalGenetics” is a branch of genetics which researches the function mechanism andits regular pattern of genetic factors in the generation, epidemics, diagnosis,prevention, treatment and hereditary genetics of diseases, by applying thetheories of genetics and methods.
“Pathology” is a study which focuses on theresearch of the reason based on which human diseases are generated and theiroccurring mechanisms and development regularities, and the pattern structureand metabolism of the organisms and during the diseases development process
“Functionalexperimentation” is a subject which focuses on the exploration ofregularities of functional activities and the regularities in terms ofvariation under the influence of medicine or in the state of diseases. It isthe important fundamental courses and skill training courses in medicine orbiology.
“SocialPsychology” is a branch of psychology which focuses on the research ofsocial psychological phenomena of individual or group. Individual SocialPsychological phenomena refers to the personal thoughts, feeling and behaviourwhich are restrained by other people or group, for example, sense/feeling inbetween different people, attraction among different people, societal promotionor societal inhibition or acquiescence. Group Social Psychological phenomenarefer to those psychological features which are unique to the group itself, forexample, the Group Cohesion, Social Psychological Atmosphere, Group Decisionmaking.
”HumanParasitology” is a subject of science which focuses on the relationship in betweenthe parasites and their victims, in the field of medical science. The mainfocus is on the pattern structures, ecological regularities of parasites, theemphasis is on the research of the mutual relationship in between the parasiteand human body and other external factors, and it is to explore the mechanismbased on which diseases in relation to parasite could be generated and the regularitiesof becoming epidemic from the point of view of aetiology and the dynamics of aetiological species , for the purpose of providing pathologicalbasis based on which the diseases in relation to parasites could be controlled,destroyed and prevented.
”MedicalMolecular biology” is a book, based on the systematic description of fundamentalconcepts, fundamental theories and fundamental skills of Molecular Biology,which has described in details regarding the cell period, cell dying, cellinformation transference and the molecular mechanism of malignant tumour andits significance in terms of medical science. In addition, it also hasdescribed
“Microbiology“mainly focus on the research of the patterns, structures, metabolismactivities, hereditary nature and variation, mechanism which causes such kindof diseases, anti-infection immunity of living organisms, lab diagnostics andprevention of special variation ofmicro-organism as pathogens for human diseases.
“Pathophysiology” is one of the theoreticalsubjects of fundamental medicine. In the meantime, it is also acting as bridgelike function in between fundamental medical science and clinical courses. Itstask is to research the occurrence and condition of disease generation,research the function, dynamic variation of metabolism and the mechanism whichcause the disease, of the living organism which are the victim of the diseaseduring the whole process of disease, for the purpose of exploring the regularpattern of occurrence, development and conversion,specifying the nature of diseases, to provide theoretical foundation fordiseases prevention.
“Regionalanatomy” is a kind of anatomy which focuses on the description of thestructures of all various parts, position and mutual relationship of humanbody, such as head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, back and four limbs, fromeasier level to more difficult level.
“PhysicalDiagnostics” is a subject focusing on the diagnosis of diseases by utilising thefundamental theories of medical science, basic knowledge and basic skills. Thedetailed contents may include methods and techniques of consulting, chestinspection, inspection of spines and four limbs, whole body inspection,clinical blood test, regularly adopted kidney function lab test and others.
“Pharmacology” is a subject which focuses on the mutualinteraction in between medicine and living organisms. It is a study ofmechanism which causes changes/variation as a result of using chemicalsubstance to cure diseases.
“Medicalethics” is a subject to solve the phenomena and problem inmedical ethics in medical and health practice, medical development process, byusing general ethical theories. It is one of the important parts of medicalscience, but also one of the branches of ethics. It is a subject to researchthe moral issues as a result of the relationship among different individuals,people versus society, people and nature in the medical field by using ethicstheories and methods.
“PreventiveMedicine” is a study which focuses on the research of factors impactingupon health and the regularities of its functions by applying macro and microtechniques, by using human group as the target for research. The mutualrelationship in between external environment factors and human group is specified,policies and measures in terms of public hygiene and health are to beestablished, for the purpose of preventing diseases, and improve health andextend life expectancy and improve life quality as its target.
“ChineseMedical health care” has organised a system of medical care andtreatment in the field of Chinese Traditional Medicine with some legendaryhue/tradition. In the book, there are not only the pharmacologicalinterpretation of those involved medicinal plants in accordance with books on ChineseTraditional medicine, but also the detailed description of modern day eatingmethods, with prescription for regularly encountered diseases which have been proved effectiveattached.
“TraditionalChinese medicine” is a comprehensive science focusing on the researchof conversion regularities and prevention, diagnosis, treatment and recoveryand hygiene in between health and diseases in the field of Chinese TraditionalMedicine in people’s daily lives, based on the main body of the traditionaltheories and practice experience of Chinese Traditional Medicine.
“Otorhinolaryngology” is a specialisedmedical subject, which researches the diagnosis and treatment of pathologicalconversion process of ear, nose and throats. Recently, surgical field of the neckexcept teeth, brain and skull have all been classified as part of this subject.ear, nose and throats are 3 internally connected organ. Because thepathological process would tend to influence against each other, it usuallywill be put together for research purposes.
“InternalMedicine(1)” covers the study of respiratory diseases, the study of circulatorydiseases, the study of digestive diseases, the study of diseases of urinationsystem, the study of blood related diseases, the study of diseases in associationwith internal excretion/metabolism, the study of diseases in association ofRheumatic Immunity, and Toxin. The contents of Internal Medicine include thedefinition of diseases, pathological causes, mechanisms which have caused thediseases, epidermiology, natural history, symptom, laboratory testing, imagetesting, identification diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment, postal care.
“Dermatology” covers the study ofskins disease and venereal diseases. The 2 are the most important fields inclinical medicines. It is a science with the target to understand and preventall sorts of diseases, protect and improve human health. It is a subject tostudy the skin and other accessory organs and all associated diseases. Throughthe teaching of this subject, it is to enable the students master thedevelopment regularities, diagnosis, and treatment and prevention of regularlyencountered diseases in dermatology .
“Laboratorydiagnostics” is to obtain the objective data which represents thestatus of living organisms, pathological variations and pathological causes, byinspecting the specimen of patients ’ blood, body liquid, excreted ordischarged items from body and tissue sample, by using lab testing techniquesand methods in terms of physics, chemistry and biology.
“Surgery(1)” is one of the subjects of modern day medicine. Its main target isto remove the causes of diseases from patients by surgical means, so that thepatients could receive treatment. The same as all other subjects in clinicalmedicine, it is required to understand the definition of diseases, causes,sympton, diagnosis, periodic staging, treatment, and postal cure care. Besidesit is more focusing on the indication, pre-operation care and assessment,surgical techniques and methods, post operation care, complications ofoperation and post operation care, and other problems in relation to surgery.
The research range of “Ophthalmology” covers thephysiological, bio-chemical, pharmacological, physiological, immunal aspects ofeye and all various special inspections and the techniques of micro-operationof eyes.
Paediatrics is one of the maincourses of clinical medicine. It is to research the growth regularities ofyoung child, to improve the physical and psychological health level and improvethe quality of diseases prevention quality of young child. Its service targetis young child and teenagers who are still under growth and development. Itsbasic theories cover development Paediatrics, Preventative Paedatrics andClinical Paediatrics. Clinical Paediatrics include young child hygiene andhealth, new infants, blood, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, kidney,neurology and epidemiology, and other subjects with 3 levels. Through the studyof Paediatrics, it is to enable the students to master the general regularpatterns of young child growth, different emphasis of young child preventativehygiene at various ages, master the key points of clinical diagnosis andidentification, and treatment principles of regularly encountered diseasesamong children. The most important part is to master the correct clinicalthinking methods of disease diagnosis and identification diagnosis ofchildren’s diseases.
Plasticsurgery is to enable face and other parts of body to be adjusted to theexpected shape by using surgical means. As opposed to normal surgery, it is forthe purpose of beauty, to enable the face and other parts of the body to becomemore beautiful.
“Oncology”is a book with 14 chapters. The first chapter focuses on major progress andresearch expectation after hundred years of tumour research. From the secondchapter to the ninth chapter, it is mainly the fundamentals of “oncology”including Oncological Epidemiology, the causes of tumor and the mechanismswhich cause tumor, studies of the nature of tumor being hereditary, OncologyImmunology, Oncology Cell Biology, Oncology Molecular Biology, theestablishment and the application ofexperimental tumor model, molecular diagnosis of tumor. Every chapter has thedescription of research direction and research thoughts. From 10th chapters to14th chapters, the focus is mainly on the description of clinical treatment oftumor including surgical treatment, treatment by the means of internalmedicine, radiological treatment, biological treatment, comprehensive treatmentof multiple subjects, of tumor.
Epidemiology is a clinical medicalscience which researches the causes, regular patterns of occurrence,development and conversion inside human body, with the diagnosis and preventionmechanisms, to reach the purpose of controlling the contagious diseases fromoccurring, developing and becoming pan-epidemic. It is a part of internalmedicine with its own characteristics, as opposed to other diseases within thescope of internal medicine. Because it has clear pathogen and it has the natureof being contagious and pan-epidemic, and immunity after the disease. It hasclose connection with the studies of neurological diseases, microbiology,immunology, parasitology and bio-chemistry and other clinical and fundamentalmedical science.
Gynecology& Obstetrics is a specialised subject which focuses on the research of specialisedphysiological and pathological characteristics of women, including obstetricsand gynecology, two main parts. Obstetrics is a medical subject which is inrelation to the whole process including impregnation, giving birth, with thediagnosis and treatment of all physiological, pathological and psychologicalalteration of this whole process. It is a medical subject which is to assistthe birth of new life. Gynecology is a medical subject which researches anynon-pregnancy related pathological alteration of women’s reproductive systemand the disagnosis and treatment of such kind of alteration. Through thestudying of this subject, students are required to have mastered thefundamental theories, knowledge and skills.
EmergencyMedicine emphasizes on the analytical thoughts in terms of diagnosis andtreatment of serious diseases in the emergency department, the treatmentprinciples of regularly encountered diseases and frequently relapsed/occurreddiseases, from the starting point of serious disease serious diseases in theemergency department; systematic introduction has been done for those diseaseswhich are considered as having the special characteristics of the emergencymedicine, such as sepsis, multiple organ failure/disorder syndrome,recuperation of heart, lung and brain, trauma, acute toxin poisoning, Inaddition, brief description have been done for the analytical thoughts in termsof diagnosis and treatment, new progress of regularly encountered seriousdiseases in the emergency department and regularly adopted techniques inemergency treatment.
Neurology isa clinical medical subject which researches the nervus centralis system, andthe surrounding nerve system and the causes of bone diseases and the mechanismswhich cause the bone disease, pathological theories, clinical symptoms,diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The treatment range covers all sorts ofdisease in internal Neurological Department, for example diseases in relationto blood pipes (Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebral Infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage,carotid artery stenosis, intracranialartery stenosis), contagious disease in the nervus centralis system, tumour,external injury, degenerative disease、disease in relation to self-immunity system, hereditarydisease, disease in relation to toxins, prenatal development deformity,malnutrition, diseases in relation to metabolism disorders and other kinds ofdifficult diseases in the Neurological department.
EvidenceBased medicine requires the clinical physicians not only strive to seek and obtainthe most optimum research evidence, but also take personal professionalknowledge including the pathological and physiological theories in relation tothe occurrence and the development of diseases, and personal clinicalexperience and other people (including experts)’s suggestions and researchresults into consideration; not only have to abide by the regulation and needsof medical practice, but also respect the personal will and practicality basedon the tenet of “Patients are the mostimportant“, then made a decision in terms of diagnosis and treatment.