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[换汇翻译] 屹丰翻译服务社专业翻译各类文件移民局认可/语法修改/AA驾照翻译 [复制链接]

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发表于 2012-2-1 15:48:46 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 group127 于 2014-3-31 13:18 编辑 0 J! M" X0 m9 G6 x, G
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Success Translation Service

屹丰翻译服务社


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1. 移民局,WORK and INCOME, STUDYLINK,等政府部门认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代 写书信

行业协会投诉,各类商务,旅游,就医,警察局,政府部门面谈现场口译及刑事,民事,经济,家庭,雇佣关系,小额仲裁法庭,房屋署租房纠纷仲裁法庭出庭口译


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Ph:09-3798802

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AA 认证驾照翻译,也可以邮寄, 奥克兰市内, 平信邮寄免费.外地再加COURIERPOST邮寄费


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Level 3, 350 Queen Street, Auckland CBD 4 {4 Y) [. y& v1 p# G5 w# M
市中心免费送货(条件限制)Email: group125@hotmail.com. or  successtranslation@hotmail.co.nz

Ph:0221567907, ph:2818516,3798802  

QQ1446573795, Fax:3034587
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请不要用站内短信和我联络。请用手机短信或电子邮件。

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谢谢!

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郑重声明:本服务社是独立运作的生意,不属于任何其他公司, 只是和其他公司一起分享一个办公室而已。本社只专心做翻译,不做移民中介服务。
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0 K& z% l+ G5 G6 u- _- k* o无犯罪证明,父母支持信,工作证明,收入证明,毕业证书,学位证,出生证,户口本,结婚证, 以及其他文件。技术文件、商业文件翻译. 法律文件、医学文件翻译
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各种投资或创业移民用合同,( V3 p5 l8 y" Q; z& J
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本服务面向新西兰全境,外地客户,
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' e. l4 ?2 G! }6 O7 V您只需要将您的文件扫描或拍照,然后通过电子邮件传给我们,然后通过网上转帐、在kiwibank 银行的任何分行直接存款到我们的帐户。我们可以邮寄给你. 转帐时,请用你的发件油箱地址,作为索引,这样我就知道,钱来自哪里.
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可以邮寄.再加5刀的特快专递邮寄费用.如果是平信, 邮寄免费.
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大部分文件立等可取
8 \5 Z- p' `" `; u七天无休, 质优价廉, 服务全新西兰,
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为了方便上班的客户, 本服务,每天8时下班, 6时到8时.大楼锁门, 请先发短信.
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' P! u2 K5 O- N3 j" u周末,请先发短信约好时间。
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你也可以把文件送到Shop 6, 33 Lorne St, Auckland City, Square Convenience Store.不包括驾驶执照。
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* J1 g, S* E! T/ y* P( e9 }TEL:09-3770331
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1 Y- |/ v5 o/ J6 X4 L和我的竞争对手相比, 我有下列优势:1 _6 ^, Q$ _) `; {  Z* f9 x8 b# {
我在市中心有办公室.便于客户来访.8 n, [9 G; F8 E9 h1 ]+ X. w
我周末也上班.
8 v( i5 U$ `- Y' e我的语言功底是最好的.我是最好的英汉翻译.(如果各位认为我在吹牛骗人,可以自己比较一下, 自己判断)$ u+ V. A- x/ W$ P
价格合理.
/ l3 x1 D* v- O/ y不收加急费$ w( Q/ r0 t* F/ |/ y
最快的交货期
1 ^: j( n+ c# [7 E$ l周末上班, 不加收费用
% i+ _7 a3 l1 `4 w, B8 R$ U3 X+ e所以从交货期,价格和质量来考量, 我是性价比最高的翻译3 i2 M8 R0 t* {' t& [

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我现在和一部分移民中介有合作关系, 我希望能扩客户群. 如果,你有兴趣,请和我联络.对于在市区的中介,一般地说, 是我送货上门. 详细情况面谈.
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, H9 ]* O# ~/ ?( F1 V: f# s在没有比你先到客户条件下, 以上有固定格式的文件的交货时间为半小时.
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! W( i8 U/ N5 F. @* C5 a在没有比你先到客户条件下,对于小于1000字的支持信, 交货时间不超过3小时.3 A7 I" J+ J) {$ o

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本市内部, 邮寄免费(平信).
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6 a6 j4 K0 t, m& `, _如果时间紧急, 我可以代为邮寄翻译件到移民局.只要你告知我你的申请案例编号和你的客户编号.
; D  J: U0 a: e, |( m1 \周六周日,请先发手机短信.2 }0 A. l+ D3 q5 W& l# t
我们的银行账号:
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Account Holder: SUCCESS TRANSLATION SERVICEAccount number:38-9012-0887607-003 Z  C$ S8 s1 V( ?. k5 V
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学历
5 f3 Z: A2 ]0 T' S  k/ VPostgraduate Diploma of Translation Studies (Auckland)) n3 G6 n9 D$ y8 G# r' M9 |
Bachelor of Commerce. (Massey)
) `0 \) F& Z& d, M& W新西兰翻译协会全会员. C  |2 k) i& J; n; M* S; n5 d
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2.我也可以做语法修改, ' H6 G( S( E* i) o  P) i0 x
最近, 有客户让我语法修改, 我的一位竞争者的翻译, 我发现她的语法水平非常糟糕. 在这里,奉劝那些滥竽充数的翻译,请赶快离开这个行业,不要害人.
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The reason to employ me as  your proofreader is because I am able to appreciate the minute difference among various words in both languages: English and Chinese. This is because I have spent a lot of time on both languages.  The proofreader whose native langauge is English will not be able to make sure the word you have chosen is the right word for your original intention and this is because he is not able to understand Chinese. I am able to do both.7 \2 }% w7 m! f! Z+ R! M5 y# t$ f* g

  a( A% T4 C) {0 h$ v# d& NThe following is designed to show you that the importance of such kind skill in the process of proofreading for the purpose of trying to ensure that your true intention will be properly represented., B" S# h/ \6 |6 Y' {* @

. q0 D' p0 Q' T( R  ]9 S4 `4 n批评 criticise
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批判 critcise severely, sometimes with malicious intention.+ C6 o1 \* U" S" K5 E

2 s0 p, U/ P( H批斗 chastise (criticise severely) maliciously sometimes with violence involved.
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+ w: F" n- C( h8 H公开批斗 public chastisement usually maliciously, sometimes with violence involved.
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抬杠
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To argue for the sake of arguing, sometimes it is used to refer to the argument of minor issues.
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, H* k; ?. j* }) gThe above example is designed to show you the importance of appreciating both languages in terms of the ability to master the minute nuance among various words, for the purpose of truely or authentically representing your correct intention in the target language. For the proofreaders who can not appreciate Chinese will not be able to help you ensure what you have written represents your true intention in the target language. Because your English is not good enough to complete such task. you will highly likely be unable to correctly represent your true intention. 3 D' b1 o; Y1 a" t
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However, I am able to do both,  Therefore I have already been a master of both languages who is very competent to complete such kind of task.
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The ability of appreciating the connotational significance of every word in addition to the interpretation of its literal meaning is very important in the process of completing this task.* @5 i" b2 W; ~. N: i, o

5 G+ |; i: y, t0 A5 Y" CThe following is an additional example through which the importance of the ability to appreciate the minute difference of various words is emphasized:' B, {% p/ m! R$ U

8 \6 e8 I- m. J3 P7 c5 CStubborn, Obstinate: 顽固不化
$ L' }4 Z; U  T0 SStaunch 坚决 . }+ s  N2 {- s/ o% i, q( D
Adament 坚定不移
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. h3 a& H, }" mAs we can realise that, there are huge number of various vocabulary in both languages, some of them are considered to be similar but they are not exactly the same. Therefore, in order to make sure your correct intention would be rendered properly in the foreign language, someone who is considered to be the master of both of the languages should be employed for the purpose of proofreading and the result would be much better than employing someone who is the master of only one of the pair.
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. W  E3 G3 D. F- _5 N# `9 t* ]I am the prime expert in the field of translation in between English and Chinese. You could have a try should you not believe it.( u- v4 [9 A6 n. X4 S6 n7 \+ v

! c& Q$ r) Q) qI can provide fast and good quality service with reasonable price." V; [4 k" p/ |, y4 [! K

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! @0 R& I3 f% p! @% _1 ]3. 各种场合的口译。、3 g2 k2 X1 k, F) c' g4 I
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The following is one of my writings:

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翻译究竟有多难?


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How difficult is translation?

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翻译的工作对翻译工作者的语言水平提出的客观要求是,翻译工作者的母语要比多数的普通本国人要好,同时外语要比多数的相应国家的人要好。这主要是针对文学翻译人,但对科技翻译人要求也不很低,科技翻译工作者不可能仅仅翻译科技资料而一点不涉足普通内容的翻译---就是这个普通内容的翻译给科技翻译工作者也提出了可畏的语言水平要求。
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The objective requirement for the language capabilities of translation workers for completing the translation jobs is the translator’s capability of using the native language should be better than the majority of common/normal people in his home country and the ability of using foreign language should be better than the majority of common/normal people in the respective country. This is mostly targeting literature translators. But for those translators translating science and technology, the requirement is also not relatively low. For those science and technology translators, they could not solely involve in the translation of science and technology without doing other normal translations. It is this normal translation which has put forward a fearsome/difficult language requirement in front of those science/technology translators.( O8 \1 ?. P1 Z7 i

* W9 v, [. r7 l8 U现实生活当中的文学翻译人,身份基本同时还是作家。简单地说,具体到汉英翻译,现实生活中的汉英文学翻译者,基本是中文作家或英文作家。二者得兼的有林语堂,国内卖中文,美国卖英文。! b. R! ^: P% N2 l* X

' b2 N; L# Z/ Q6 M9 xIn daily life, for those literature translators, most of them are simultaneously writers. Putting it simply, with respect to Chinese-English translation, the Chinese-English literature translators in daily life are all basically Chinese writers or English writers. Mr Lin yutang is someone who has covered both. He is selling his Chinese writing in China and English writing in the United States.
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4 P- O/ d5 q. b9 E3 p8 K如果所写的英文在美国达不到能卖的水平,那么由中文作品翻译而成的英文在美国也不能卖。
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. I# F! h* ?6 p$ B' QIf the English written does not reach the standard which is sellable in the United States, then, the Chinese works translated in English could also not be able to sell in the United States.
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你也许觉得我是在说对翻译家的语言要求吧,非也,普通的翻译工作者时不时遇到的翻译材料恰恰是需要具备翻译家的语言能力才能处理好,可大家都还不是翻译家,这就是普通翻译工作者有时痛苦、郁闷的一个重要原因。( w1 O0 P% W6 `8 \3 t  P
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You may be thinking that I am referring to the language requirement of translation experts. This is not true because normal translators would from time to time encounter situation which requires the language capability of translation experts. But, the majority of us is not translation experts. This is the important reason which has created plight and depression of normal/commonplace translators.; P6 A6 Q0 N7 ?

; R$ c9 q- z! G说到这,你明白了吧---翻译有多难?天才才能搞好翻译,勤奋的天才,不过天才都知道翻译不是个好活,根本不往这条道上走:都经商和从政去了。人活难逃追名逐利,不大会为了实现共产主义而“献身”。
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* R8 |; c" [1 C" {- C  wTalking about this, now you can understand how difficult translation is??????? Only a genius could be good at translation, an industrious genius. But genius all know translation is not an easy job and they do not choose to do translation. They all get involve in trade or business. People could not usually avoid the pursuit of money and fame and they would usually not “devote their lives” to communism.
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I have copied this article and translated into English. For comments on the original Chinese article, please send email to
translatorbj@sina.com.cn, for comments on the translation, please send email to caoyi99nz@yahoo.com,% V  y4 H/ A  W* a" \
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移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
Level 3, 350 Queen Street. Auckland CBD
You are too literally stupid to be insulted

Rank: 4

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发表于 2012-2-1 16:58:43 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-2-7 18:27 编辑
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% t) C+ K8 a. _1 J$ fIso-Ahala指出旅游动机可从社会学,和社会心理学两方面着手。在心理学上动机是产生行为的关键,外部的诱因和内在的驱力都可以影响动机。所以人们去旅游的真正原因是满足内心的心理需求,这是驱使人们旅游的动力。 个人参与休闲行为具有两个基本的动机特征,分别是逃脱(escape)和追求(seek)。这两种动机促使游客去旅游,去满足社会需求,和心理需求。
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“逃”指离开日常环境的愿望,人们对于现实生活的困惑和不满,在积累一段时间后,便开始想逃离原本的生活,从暂时的休闲生活中,找到平衡点。例如,人们在现实生活中有了麻烦和困惑,所以travel到有庙宇,神殿的地方去朝拜,得到心灵的安慰。
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“寻”是指希望通过旅行的不同生活环境得到喜悦和满足。比如在新西兰生活的人,被法国的菜式所吸引,为了美食去旅游,在尝试不同于kiwi cuisine的法式大餐中得到了满足。比如去外地参加本地没有的冒险刺激的活动,从中得到快乐等等。6 N7 a& R  K# k# Z, ~5 j
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5 O# }! ~, H% G我认为iso的寻和逃动机模型与dann的推拉动机因素十分相似,其实逃离就是推力,追寻就是拉力。By this I mean,当人们有逃离原有生活的愿望,这就是一个推动旅游者出游的一个动力,而 目的地 具有的特质和吸引性,正是人们所寻求的在日常生活中得不到东西,这也是鼓励人们出游的动力。
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4 Y- _" R$ I' f1 v9 ZMaslow的需要层次论也被人们广泛应用在动机理论中,他指出人类自身需求随着地位和角色的变化而变化。这些需求由从低到高的排列顺序,依次为,1,2,3,4,5,  P4 }  z+ Q7 C( q, R

9 d! D8 e: }7 c1 H7 mPearce在马斯洛的需要层次理论的基础上提出了休闲阶梯模型。旅游生涯阶梯帮助人们对maslow需要层次论在旅游动机中得到了更好的了解。他指出,人们必须先满足低层次的体验,才能依次提升到对高层次体验的需求,高层动机包含了底层的动机。旅游者因为旅游动机的不同,所处在的旅游层面也不同,随着旅游者年纪和经验的增长,他们对旅游也有更高的需求。相似的,他在leisure ladder model中也将旅游动机分为5个层次,由基础到高级的次序分别为1,2,3,4,5,
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从以上各位学者的分析中,因为Maslow的需求层次论不能单独存在于旅游动中,Iso的淘和寻理论与dann的推拉理论很相似,所以我着重表达一下dann和pearce的观点。我认为可以把dann的推拉理论结合到pearce的阶梯理论中。That is to say, 在pearce的每个阶层的旅游动机中都有推拉的因素包含在其中。比如说,在relationship needs中,就可以有推或者拉的动机。举例证明,一对结婚10年的夫妻,在结婚纪念日时决定去旅游。这个决定是为了促进感情,所以这是一个推动他们出行的动机。在决定以旅游的方式增进感情后,他们开始寻找合适的旅游地点,可能是去他们蜜月旅行的地方故地重游,可能是去一些他们从未涉足的地方去享受一些新奇的体验,这些都是外在因素拉动他们,促使他们决定去旅游的地点。这样把两个理论合并到一起,让旅游者行为动机更为清晰。


7 f0 F) T+ f4 n) c1 ^$ p结论:, P7 V6 e" p# U9 A
本文总结了4位学者对旅游动机的不同理论,Dann认为旅游者的动机分为推拉两个部分,推是内在因素,促使旅游者决定去旅行的原因,拉是指旅游地点的特点和吸引性,这个外在因素,决定了人们的选择。Iso-Ahala的观点与Dann基本相似,他的“寻和淘”理论就是Dann的推拉动机。逃和推相似,是旅游者想离开常住地的原因,寻和拉一样,是寻找特别的,不同于自己常住地的地方,以此获得满足。Pearce很好的诠释了Maslow的需要层次模型,将旅游动机在不同年龄,经验的旅行者身上,由低到高分为5个不同的层次,他指出人们对旅游的需要随着经验和年龄的增长不断变化,转向更高的需求。在明白每个学者对旅游动机提出的不同观点后,我将几者相结合,把Dann推拉理论应用到Pearce的休闲阶梯model中,完成“内外因素促使旅游者去度假旅行,他们的年龄,生活经验和旅游地点的特性使他们做出决定,完成旅行”的整个过程。
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Iso Ahala pointed out that the analysis of motivation to travel could be carried out from 2 perspectives which are sociological perspective and socio-psychological perspective. In accordance with psychology, motivation is the key factor which generates behavior. External engendering factors and internal motivation factors are both able to impact upon motivation. Therefore the true reason why people go to travel is to satisfy the psychological needs from their heart, this is the motivating power which drives people to travel. There are two basic characters/motivations which motivate individual to participate leisure activities, they are to “escape” and to “seek”. These two types of motivational factors drive people to travel to satisfy social and psychological needs.
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" U0 ~* S& m& `: I7 V: N' UTo “escape” refers to the desire to stay away from the daily environment. People are not satisfied with and anxious about the actual situations in their lives. After these kinds of feelings have been accumulated beyond a certain period of time, people then begin to have the desire to escape from their original life style, trying to find a new point of balancing in the leisure lives temporarily. For example, people would go to temple or shrine to worship should they experience problems or anxieties in their actual lives to gain psychological consolation/composure.0 n% X; x# G( Y2 b

7 Z" b- l9 R1 xTo “seek” is to hope to gain happiness and satisfaction through different living environment during traveling process. For example, people living in New Zealand have been attracted by French Cuisines and they then go to travel for enjoying delicious foods, trying to gain satisfaction of French Main courses which are different from Kiwi Cuisine. For example, people go to places which are not their usual place of abode for the purpose of participating adventurous activities that could not be found in their usual place of abode, to gain happiness.
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2 I  A! v5 P' D, J, DI think the models of “to seek” and “to escape” proposed by ISO are very similar to the motivational factors which are “to push and to pull” proposed by DANN. In fact, to escape is to push and to seek is to pull. By this I mean, when people are having the desire to escape from their current lives, these are the motivating powers which encourage them to travel. Whereas, the destinations possess some special characteristics and attractions which are pursued by people and are not available to them in their daily lives. This is also the reason which encourages people to travel.' |; ~, q( }! w1 c

" S% L" z1 h  W6 ~, H2 mThe “Theory of Hierarchy of needs” proposed by Maslow has also been frequently quoted by people to be adopted in the motivational theories. He has pointed out the needs of human beings varies with the alteration of status and role. These needs could be put into an ascending array from low to high level from 1,2,3,4,5.
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# P; x) c$ ^) X5 ^/ s1 _Pearce has proposed the Stairs Model for Leisure activities based on the “Theory of Hierarchy of needs” proposed by Maslow. The “Staircase Theory of Traveling Careers” has assisted people to reach a better understanding of the hierarchy of needs in the motivation of traveling. He has pointed out that people have to firstly satisfy the needs located at lower levels, they could then sequentially begin to experience the needs of higher levels. Motivations located at higher levels cover motivations located at lower levels. Tourists will begin to have higher needs for travel by the increasing of ages and experience, based on difference among motivation for traveling and difference among various levels of traveling. Similarly, he also has appropriated 5 different levels of motivation for travel in the Leisure Ladder Model, from lower level to higher level, they are 1,2,3,4,5,
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- Q" R2 N  \, `4 Q2 d8 {* BAmong all of the analysis of various scholars from the above, because of the fact that The “Theory of Hierarchy of needs” proposed by Maslow could not exist all on its own in isolation in the Motivation Theory for Travelling, and the models of “to seek” and “to escape” proposed by ISO are very similar to the motivational factors which are “to push and to pull” proposed by DANN. Therefore I am going to emphasize on the expression of the opinions by DANN and PEARCE. I think it is OK to combine the “To push and to pull” theories proposed by DANN with the “Ladder Theories” proposed by PEARCE. That is to say, in accordance with PEARCE, the “To push and to pull” factors could be found among the theories of motivation for traveling among various members of all of the social class. For example, among the relationship needs, the pushing and pulling motivations could be located. For example, a couple who has been married for 10 years decides to travel on their marriage anniversary. This decision is to improve or foster better relationship between them. Therefore, this is one motivational factor which encourages them to travel. After deciding to use the means of travel to improve their relationship and foster good feelings among them, they then begin to seek an appropriate location for travels, they may decide to go back to the place of their honeymoons, they may also decide to places which they have not been before to enjoy new and adventurous experiences. These are factors which pull them and encourage them to decide the locations for travels. By combing these two theories, it could make the motivation for the travelers clearer.
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Conclusion:) X5 Y4 L& v5 M! v9 G$ s" Z# m

, ?3 O7 ?4 N5 i* y4 Y$ DThis essay has summarized various theories in the field of motivation for traveling proposed by 4 different scholars. Dann thinks the motivation for traveling could be broken down into two parts: “to push” and “to pull’. “To push” is the internal factor which is the reason causing the traveler to go on travelling. “To pull” is the characteristics and the factors which attract, in association with the destination. This external factor determines their choices. The opinions proposed by Iso-Ahala are very similar to the opinions proposed by Dann. His “theories on Seeking and Escaping” refers the “pushing and pulling motivation” proposed by Dann. “To escape” is similar “to push”. It is the reason why the traveler desired to leave the usual place of abode. “To seek” is similar “to pull”. It is to seek a special place which is different from the usual place of abode, to gain satisfaction.$ R& a! z- b* G! ]2 M

7 ]3 Q* O" y. `PEARCE has interpreted the “Theory of Hierarchy of needs” proposed by Maslow in a very good way.  He has classified 5 different levels from low to high among various motivational factors in terms of variation in ages, experiences of travelers. He has pointed out that people‘s needs for traveling vary, towards higher needs, with the increasing of experiences and ages.
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I have combined them after understanding the various different opinions in terms of motivations for traveling proposed by different/every scholar, have applied the “push and pull” theories proposed by DANN into the :theories of Leisure Ladder” proposed by PEARCE, have completed the whole process of “Internal/external factors which engenders travelers to go on holiday traveling, the various characters in terms of their age, life experiences and in association with the traveling destination have made them to reach the decisions, to complete the traveling process”.. J( m1 O; o' ]& X; i
移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
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Therefore, I think, the reason which has caused the accident is not due to the mistake made by my client, rather, it is due to the influence of drugs. Despite the fact that the probability is very little, it is still possible to happen.3 t" h1 y9 `7 D. ?: T9 v* m: d9 Z* ]

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1.    Patent Rights

l         The supplier is to indemnify the purchaser from the allegation in terms of infringement of patent rights, Trade Marks and Industrial design, by any third party when the purchaser is using its goods, services and other parts. For any third party who has raised the allegation, the supplier should negotiate with the third party and undertake any legal responsibilities and fees which may arise.  

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l         Except in scenarios in which this contract has specified otherwise, the products supplied are to have packaging measures up till certain standards. This kind of packaging is to survive through long distance sea travel or air travel or inland travel, with good protection measures in terms of shock absorbing and anti-savage loading/unloading, so that it could be ensured that the items could be delivered on site safely. The supplier should be responsible for the product damages or loss as a result of inappropriate protection measures implemented by supplier.

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移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
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不难理解,译者拥有和表现出来的翻译能力,归根结底仍是一项实际技能,一种跨文化语际转换行为,是口、笔译者的一种持续、瞬间反应能力,一种看上去不需太多思考、近似本能反应的言语行为。翻译从业者这项技能的获得以及持续一生的再提高,主要是通过初期翻译练习以及此后不断从业实践来实现,能力获得及提高的核心因素和形式是“练”,即前期翻译“演练”和后期翻译“实战”。从现有翻译业界人士成长的经历来看,他们并未接触什么翻译理论,只是客观上语言基础扎实、知识丰富,只是默默从事翻译工作或承担重要口译任务,少有参与翻译问题的讨论和研究。在这一点上,译者的诞生似乎跟作家一样,作家是写出来的,通过现实与读者的检验脱颖而出,译者也是靠长期翻译实践而来造就。
& i. K+ F) f9 H# ^/ h; M' UIt is not hard to understand the ability to translatepossessed and portrayed by translators is, from the root causepoint of view, still a kind of skill, a kind of inter-culturalinter-linguistic conversion activity. It is the extension of oraland written interpretation, a kind of instantaneous ability toreact. It is a kind of linguistic ability which seemingly does notrequire a lot of thinking and seems to be instinctive. Theacquisition and life-long continuous improvement of this particularskill by translators are mainly through initial training andsubsequent continuous practicing experience on the job. The corefactor and form of acquisition and improvement of this skill is to“exercise”, which refers to “initial training exercise” andsubsequent “practicing experience”. Based on the experience ofgrowth of those current translation industry personnel, they havenever accessed some translation theory and they just objectivelyhave a solid foundation of the language, a lot of knowledge, andhave stoically/unnoticeably undertaken translation jobs orimportant oral interpretation tasks. They have seldom participatedany discussion of translation issues and research. On this point,the birth of translators resembles the birth of writers. Writersare born by writing and they become noticed through actual practiceand examination by the readers. Translators are also createdthrough long term translation practice.
! ~5 j9 `# @9 X6 M* q8 y2 L   如果说需要对翻译工作或翻译教学进行一些研究,那么首先应该研究的就是如何提高译者的技能,尤其是如何从学生培养成胜任工作的翻译人员。不言而喻,翻译能力表面的背后是译者的语言功力和广博知识,因此翻译人员需要长期保持快速学习的习惯、充沛的精力以及广泛的兴趣,翻译学习者应努力养成这样的职业习惯,这样才能成为一名胜任工作的翻译,将翻译工作作为毕生的事业追求。当然,翻译作为一种职业也受人生职场的影响和调节,正如有职业型教师也有学者型教师,普通的翻译人员更应关注的是实际翻译技能和每场翻译的效果,毕竟更多的译者只是做翻译的匠人,而不是翻译大家乃至宗师。因此,翻译技能的高低与翻译技能的提高始终应是翻译问题的焦点,当然还有翻译职业前途与翻译服务价格,因为翻译行业也受市场经济的支配。
4 n6 N7 K3 ^8 JThe first focus is to research on how to improve the translationskills, especially how to train competent translators from a poolof students, if the assumption that it is necessary to do someresearch on translation works or translation teachings has beenestablished. It is undoubtedly true that, under the surface oftranslation ability, it is the translators’ languageability/attainment and wide range of knowledge. Therefore,translators require to maintain the habit of long term expeditiouslearning, bounteous energy and diversified range of hobbies,translation learners should strive to maintain such kind ofprofessional habits. This is the only way which would enable thetranslation learners to become competent translators so that thetranslation job could be taken as life-long careers. It is of course true that translation as a jobcareer would also be impacted and adjusted by life-long career influences, the same as there are someprofessional teachers or scholarly teachers. A common translatorshould be more attentive to practical translation skills and theeffect of each case of translation. Because, after all, moretranslators are just craftsman of translations, other than majortranslation experts or even prime translations experts. Therefore,the focus of translation should always be the level of translationskills and the improvement of translation skills. Of course, the career potential and the price of translationsshould also be included because translation industry is alsoimpacted by marketing economy force.
5 u  k+ b( Y8 U2 u4 ]翻译能力是译者个体的一项技能,难以继承。翻译行业中出色的翻译人员很多被认为是翻译的天才,他们自学成才、水平高超,可他的翻译技能未必得以传承。老师翻译水平高不代表学生就能学得去,尽管老师可以提供练习指导,因为作为一个成功翻译人员都往往具有一些特质,这往往不是学习者能够比拟的。翻译专家未必能再教出个翻译专家,事实也表明翻译家也在走向消失,当然原因跟这个时代应该说也有一定的关系。翻译的练习,并不是学员听了指导老师的经验、经历讲解之后就算完事,问题的关键是坚持每天的练习,按照老师的指导并在老师的监督下完成这样的训练过程。自然科学领域往往能培养接班人,而翻译的传承似乎不易实现,三年学制的翻译博士生培养与此不是一回事情,实际上十年时间能把翻译能力提高到让人普遍认可的程度也非易事。翻译的传授也许更像运动员训练一些,选手未必能达到教练当年的水平,而自然科学的一些研究似乎“更容易站到巨人肩膀上”。7 I9 g* ?9 M8 n; Y3 x/ ^/ U; ?9 r
The translation ability is one of the personal skills of thetranslators which could hardly be able to be inherited. Manyof  the excellent translators in the translationindustries  are considered to be genius intranslation. They have reached this level through self-training,their skills are of very high levels but their translation skillsmay or may not be inherited. The fact that teachers have high leveltranslation skills does not mean the students could pass thesecourses despite the fact that teachers could provide trainingexercises because, as a successful translator, there are somespecial characteristics and these are something which could not beemulated by the students. A translation expert may not be able tocreate another translation expert through training. As a matter offact, the number of translation experts is declining This of coursehas something to do with the current era. The translation exercisedoes not end after the students have listened to the lecture by theteachers regarding their experiences and explanations of thoseexperiences. The key to the problem is to persevere on daily basis.This kind of translation exercises have to be completed under theteachers’ guidance and supervisions. In the field of naturalsciences, it usually is possible to train some successors, but theinheritance of translation expertise may not be easily realised.The 3 year course of Phd in translation is different from thisissue. In fact, it is still very hard to upgrade the translationability to a degree which is widely recognised as acceptable toother people after 10 years of training. The training/inheritanceof translation expertise  maybe more similar tosports personnel, the trainees may not be able to reach the levelof the coach at the time when he was an athlete. But in some fieldof natural science research, it may be easier to stand on theshoulders of the giants (inheritance).
* Z% S" Q/ P! O4 C   翻译技能的提高离不开训练。既然翻译是技能,那么技能的提高和保持就离不开训练,因此翻译课应该是技能训练课,而不是翻译知识课和翻译理论课。当然,翻译的学习与训练中,大家都必然会对翻译的方方面面产生一些思考,也会忍不住看一些翻译理论研究的论著,因为它对翻译这一事物的本质与规律做了更深层次的阐释,更有助于翻译学习者解除一些困惑。但是,一般在看完或看一段翻译理论的著述之后,翻译学习者又似乎觉得这与翻译技能提高没什么直接关系,还是想回到翻译的实际训练中。因此,似乎翻译理论成了同行间的一种感受与体会的交流,看多了觉得并无裨益,可翻译实践之余又难免有些思考需要找到共鸣与参考别人的对翻译这一事物的认识。无论如何,翻译人员及翻译学员都应该以翻译实践和训练为主,因为翻译表现出来的只是一项技能,别人听到和看到的只是翻译结果,而看不到翻译者大脑的变化。一般地,翻译学习者都愿意翻译家或业界精英解读翻译和分享从业经历,但是一常报告结束之后似乎同学们也没得到像钦佩、羡慕、鼓舞之外的收获。听一场《红楼梦》翻译者的报告,也不见得对《红楼梦》的翻译增长多少认识,更不用说学到这样文学巨著的实际翻译能力或其中句子的翻译技巧。总之,翻译技能的训练应是翻译人员与翻译学习者最为关注的方面,因为翻译作为一种职业表现出来的一项语言转换技能,作为一个普通翻译个人从事翻译理论的探究恐怕难以存在,且也没有什么这样的“市场”。对于绝大多数一般的翻译工作人员,精力还是应该放在技艺的锤炼上,因为翻译技能的提高没有止境,连达到普通可接受的能力水平也有足够的难度,而翻译的技能发展在后期更是一种语言艺术,诗歌与散文的翻译就是翻译技能走向翻译艺术的突出领域。
/ t# F9 ?7 H' C3 R6 @The improvement of translation skills could not be achieved bydeviating from training. Since translation is a skill, themaintenance and upgrading of such kind of skill could not berealised without training. Therefore, translation class should beskill training class rather than a class which teaches translationknowledge and translation theory. It is of course true that, duringthe process of learning and training of translation, everybodyinvolved would surely start to give some thoughts about all aspectsof translation. We also can not help trying to do some reading onresearch works of translation theories as it has provided deeperspecifications of the nature and regulations of translation as anitem/thing, this is more helpful for translation trainees to solvesome of their anxious problems. But, after reading completely orone paragraph of writings of translation theory, translationtrainee may think/feel this has no direct relationship with theimprovement of translation skills, they prefer to go back topractical exercises of translations. Therefore, it seems thattranslation theory has become a kind of exchange of personalfeelings among co-workers and it would not provide some actualbenefit if you have read a lot of them. However, after the actualexercises of translation, there are unavoidably some issues whichhave been pondered and which require some echoing and referencefrom some other people’s opinion on the same issue. Nevertheless,translators and translation trainees should all focus ontranslation exercise and training because translation could only beportrayed as a skill. The results perceived (read/listened to) byother people are the products of translation, rather than thethinking variations of the translators' brain. Generally,translation trainees are all willing to have the opportunity tohave access to the interpretation/explanation of translations, ortheir actual work experiences by some Translation Experts orIndustry Elites. But, after one speech, students seem to haveobtained nothing in addition to admiration and encouragement. Afterlistening to a speech made by the translator of the “Dream of theRed Mansions”, no obvious improvement may be recognised in thefield of knowledge of translating the book, let alone learning thepractical translation capability or the detailed translationtechniques of translating such a huge novel. Generally speaking,the training of translation skills should be the prime focus oftranslation workers and translation trainees because translation,as an occupation, portrays to be a language conversion skill. As acommon translator, the focus on translation theory could not enablehim to survive and besides, there is no such kind of market. Forthe majority of common translators, energy should be directedtowards the training of the skills because there is no maximumlimit to which the translation skill could be upgraded. Even if therequirement is only to reach the level which is commonlyrecognisable, it is still sufficiently difficult. Besides, thedevelopment of translation skills at a later stage has converteditself into a kind of art form. The translation of poems and proseare the two most prominent areas in which translation skills havebecome an art form.  9 G/ v( y6 @$ j" a& I
   翻译技能的提高需要长期的翻译经验与语言积累。一般地,相对较好的翻译都出自年龄较长的译者,基本都是年过五十的人,不少还都是出自七十岁的译者之手。这就是翻译这个领域的特点,二十几岁的翻译者不会有经得起推敲的译文。现实生活当中,我们发现的只是有的译者比别的译者文字能力更强,但找不到完美的翻译结果.因为首先翻译就没有确定的可操作标准,翻译的操作在进行当时,翻译结果来自译者的“直觉”,也就是多年积累的短时表现。如果说有某种翻译思想影响短时翻译行为,那么这种思想发挥作用的时间也是在翻译结果出来前译者的瞬时综合思考之中。翻译能力的前提就是语言驾驭能力,如不具备必须的语言功力,那么译者对诗歌、散文的翻译尝试都只能是一种徒劳。翻译道路上的跋涉者,需要知晓翻译中存在的困难以及翻译路途的遥远,但不能畏惧不前、望洋兴叹!选择翻译之路,就选择了全方位的挑战,这种挑战的魅力即是译者前行的动力。* I$ O3 D2 L5 o9 h9 A
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The improvement of translation skills requires long termtranslation experiences and accumulations of languages. Generally,relatively good translations are usually the products of oldertranslators. They are all mostly older than 50 years old, a lot ofthem are from translators who are 70 years old or more. This is thecharacteristics of translation industry. Translations works bypeople who are 20+ can not survive after careful reviews. In dailylife, we only could find the ability to process words of atranslator is better than the other one but we could not findperfect translations.  Becausetranslation does not have ascertainable operation standards. Duringthe period in which translation is undergoing, thetranslation results come from the “intuition” of translators whichis the transient representation of multiple years’ accumulations.If a certain type of translation thoughts impact upon the transienttranslation activity, the period during which this kind of thoughtswould have an impact is within the comprehensive transient thinkingprocess of the translator before the translation result iscompleted. The premise based on which translation ability could beimproved is the ability to operate languages. If this kind oflanguage operating ability is not present, the endeavour totranslate poems and prose is futile. The trekker in the field oftranslation has to realise the difficulties existed in thetranslation process and the lengthiness of the translation process.But fear and cringe without moving forward should not be the rightattitude. If you choose translation, you have chosen a holisticchallenge. The charm of this challenge is the motivation for thetranslators to move forward.
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I have copied thisarticle and translatedinto English. For comments on the original Chinese article, pleasesend email to translatorbj@sina.com.cn,for comments on the translation, please send email to caoyi99nz@yahoo.com,' t5 A' d! s$ D/ t4 g1 X4 j
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移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
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发表于 2012-2-2 11:31:31 |显示全部楼层

Curriculum Description (Full )

本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-9-26 17:51 编辑
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“SystematicAnatomy” is a part of “Human Anatomy”. It is “Human Anatomy” basedon the description of various systems of human bodies such as “movement system,digestion system, respiratory system, urination system, reproductive system,internal excretion system, re-cycle system, sensing system and nerve system”.

“Cytobiology” is a science dealing with theforms and functions of cells from the point of view of medical science, fromthe perspective of cell level, microscopic level and sub-microscopic level.

“Medicalphysics” basically covers all of the fundamental theoreticalknowledge,and their major application, of physics which are required by theacademic major of medicines

“Medical Organicchemistry” has reinforced the description ofthe reaction mechanisms of organic chemistry, the transitional state,intermediate state, stereochemistry and electronic effect, has introduced andexplored the frontiers and hot topics of the some of the issues in relation toorganic chemistry in the life process, in order to broaden the vision of thestudents.

“Histology &Embryology” is a science dealing with theresearch of body micro-structures and their associated functions. Embryology ismainly dealing with the research of the growth process starting from theimpregnated eggs to the new born babies and its mechanisms, including thegeneration of reproductive cells, impregnations and the growth of fetus, andthe relationship in between fetus and the mother body, prenatal deformity.

“Physiology” is a branch ofbiological science, which is based on the research of the life activity,phenomena and functions of all parts of bodies of the biological bodies, as aresearch subject. Physiology is a branch of biology which is to research thenormal regular patterns of life activities of living bodies/organsims. Livingorganisms covers from the simplest micro organisms to the most complicatedhuman bodies.  

“Biochemistry andMolecular biology” is not only the fundamentalsof science dealing with living organisms but also the frontiers of sciencedealing with living organisms. Biochemistry and Molecular biology are toexplore the nature of  life, which is toresearch the structure and function, and the metabolism and adjustment ofmolecules of living organisms.

“Immunology”is a study which studies the structure and function of living organisms’ immunestructures, including organisational structures of immune system, theidentification of itself and others by the immune system and reaction, therejection effect of foreign objects by the immune system, the engendering,maintenance, destruction of immune tolerance and its mechanisms. Immunology, inaddition to the above fields, would discuss the pathological process and itsmechanisms of immune function by different, and the application of Immunologytheories, methods and techniques in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment ofdisease.

“MedicalGenetics” is a branch of genetics which researches the function mechanism andits regular pattern of genetic factors in the generation, epidemics, diagnosis,prevention, treatment and hereditary genetics of diseases, by applying thetheories of genetics and methods.

“Pathology” is a study which focuses on theresearch of the reason based on which human diseases are generated and theiroccurring mechanisms and development regularities, and the pattern structureand metabolism of the organisms and during the diseases development process

“Functionalexperimentation” is a subject which focuses on the exploration ofregularities of functional activities and the regularities in terms ofvariation under the influence of medicine or in the state of diseases. It isthe important fundamental courses and skill training courses in medicine orbiology.

“SocialPsychology” is a branch of psychology which focuses on the research ofsocial psychological phenomena of individual or group. Individual SocialPsychological phenomena refers to the personal thoughts, feeling and behaviourwhich are restrained by other people or group, for example, sense/feeling inbetween different people, attraction among different people, societal promotionor societal inhibition or acquiescence. Group Social Psychological phenomenarefer to those psychological features which are unique to the group itself, forexample, the Group Cohesion, Social Psychological Atmosphere, Group Decisionmaking.

”HumanParasitology” is a subject of science which focuses on the relationship in betweenthe parasites and their victims, in the field of medical science. The mainfocus is on the pattern structures, ecological regularities of parasites, theemphasis is on the research of the mutual relationship in between the parasiteand human body and other external factors, and it is to explore the mechanismbased on which diseases in relation to parasite could be generated and the regularitiesof becoming epidemic from the point of view of aetiology and the dynamics of aetiological species , for the purpose of providing pathologicalbasis based on which the diseases in relation to parasites could be controlled,destroyed and prevented.

”MedicalMolecular biology” is a book, based on the systematic description of fundamentalconcepts, fundamental theories and fundamental skills of Molecular Biology,which has described in details regarding the cell period, cell dying, cellinformation transference and the molecular mechanism of malignant tumour andits significance in terms of medical science. In addition, it also hasdescribed

“Microbiology“mainly focus on the research of the patterns, structures, metabolismactivities, hereditary nature and variation, mechanism which causes such kindof diseases, anti-infection immunity of living organisms, lab diagnostics andprevention of special variation  ofmicro-organism as pathogens for human diseases.

“Pathophysiology” is one of the theoreticalsubjects of fundamental medicine. In the meantime, it is also acting as bridgelike function in between fundamental medical science and clinical courses. Itstask is to research the occurrence and condition of disease generation,research the function, dynamic variation of metabolism and the mechanism whichcause the disease, of the living organism which are the victim of the diseaseduring the whole process of disease, for the purpose of exploring the regularpattern of occurrence, development and  conversion,specifying the nature of diseases, to provide theoretical foundation fordiseases prevention.

“Regionalanatomy” is a kind of anatomy which focuses on the description of thestructures of all various parts, position and mutual relationship of humanbody, such as head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, back and four limbs, fromeasier level to more difficult level.  

“PhysicalDiagnostics” is a subject focusing on the diagnosis of diseases by utilising thefundamental theories of medical science, basic knowledge and basic skills. Thedetailed contents may include methods and techniques of consulting, chestinspection, inspection of spines and four limbs, whole body inspection,clinical blood test, regularly adopted kidney function lab test and others.

Pharmacology is a subject which focuses on the mutualinteraction in between medicine and living organisms. It is a study ofmechanism which causes changes/variation as a result of using chemicalsubstance to cure diseases.

Medicalethics is a subject to solve the phenomena and problem inmedical ethics in medical and health practice, medical development process, byusing general ethical theories. It is one of the important parts of medicalscience, but also one of the branches of ethics. It is a subject to researchthe moral issues as a result of the relationship among different individuals,people versus society, people and nature in the medical field by using ethicstheories and methods.

“PreventiveMedicine” is a study which focuses on the research of factors impactingupon health and the regularities of its functions by applying macro and microtechniques, by using human group as the target for research. The mutualrelationship in between external environment factors and human group is specified,policies and measures in terms of public hygiene and health are to beestablished, for the purpose of preventing diseases, and improve health andextend life expectancy and improve life quality as its target.

“ChineseMedical health care” has organised a system of medical care andtreatment in the field of Chinese Traditional Medicine with some legendaryhue/tradition. In the book, there are not only the pharmacologicalinterpretation of those involved medicinal plants in accordance with books on ChineseTraditional medicine, but also the detailed description of modern day eatingmethods, with prescription for regularly encountered  diseases which have been proved effectiveattached.

“TraditionalChinese medicine” is a comprehensive science focusing on the researchof conversion regularities and prevention, diagnosis, treatment and recoveryand hygiene in between health and diseases in the field of Chinese TraditionalMedicine in people’s daily lives, based on the main body of the traditionaltheories and practice experience of Chinese Traditional Medicine.

“Otorhinolaryngology” is a specialisedmedical subject, which researches the diagnosis and treatment of pathologicalconversion process of ear, nose and throats. Recently, surgical field of the neckexcept teeth, brain and skull have all been classified as part of this subject.ear, nose and throats are 3 internally connected organ. Because thepathological process would tend to influence against each other, it usuallywill be put together for research purposes.

“InternalMedicine(1)” covers the study of respiratory diseases, the study of circulatorydiseases, the study of digestive diseases, the study of diseases of urinationsystem, the study of blood related diseases, the study of diseases in associationwith internal excretion/metabolism, the study of diseases in association ofRheumatic Immunity, and Toxin. The contents of Internal Medicine include thedefinition of diseases, pathological causes, mechanisms which have caused thediseases, epidermiology, natural history, symptom, laboratory testing, imagetesting, identification diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment, postal care.      

“Dermatology” covers the study ofskins disease and venereal diseases. The 2 are the most important fields inclinical medicines. It is a science with the target to understand and preventall sorts of diseases, protect and improve human health. It is a subject tostudy the skin and other accessory organs and all associated diseases. Throughthe teaching of this subject, it is to enable the students master thedevelopment regularities, diagnosis, and treatment and prevention of regularlyencountered diseases in dermatology .

“Laboratorydiagnostics” is to obtain the objective data which represents thestatus of living organisms, pathological variations and pathological causes, byinspecting the specimen of patients ’ blood, body liquid, excreted ordischarged items from body and tissue sample, by using lab testing techniquesand methods in terms of physics, chemistry and biology.

“Surgery(1)” is one of the subjects of modern day medicine. Its main target isto remove the causes of diseases from patients by surgical means, so that thepatients could receive treatment. The same as all other subjects in clinicalmedicine, it is required to understand the definition of diseases, causes,sympton, diagnosis, periodic staging, treatment, and postal cure care. Besidesit is more focusing on the indication, pre-operation care and assessment,surgical techniques and methods, post operation care, complications ofoperation and post operation care, and other problems in relation to surgery.

The research range of “Ophthalmology” covers thephysiological, bio-chemical, pharmacological, physiological, immunal aspects ofeye and all various special inspections and the techniques of micro-operationof eyes.

Paediatrics is one of the maincourses of clinical medicine. It is to research the growth regularities ofyoung child, to improve the physical and psychological health level and improvethe quality of diseases prevention quality of young child. Its service targetis young child and teenagers who are still under growth and development. Itsbasic theories cover development Paediatrics, Preventative Paedatrics andClinical Paediatrics. Clinical Paediatrics include young child hygiene andhealth, new infants, blood, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, kidney,neurology and epidemiology, and other subjects with 3 levels. Through the studyof Paediatrics, it is to enable the students to master the general regularpatterns of young child growth, different emphasis of young child preventativehygiene at various ages, master the key points of clinical diagnosis andidentification, and treatment principles of regularly encountered diseasesamong children. The most important part is to master the correct clinicalthinking methods of disease diagnosis and identification diagnosis ofchildren’s diseases.  

Plasticsurgery is to enable face and other parts of body to be adjusted to theexpected shape by using surgical means. As opposed to normal surgery, it is forthe purpose of beauty, to enable the face and other parts of the body to becomemore beautiful.

“Oncology”is a book with 14 chapters. The first chapter focuses on major progress andresearch expectation after hundred years of tumour research. From the secondchapter to the ninth chapter, it is mainly the fundamentals of “oncology”including Oncological Epidemiology, the causes of tumor and the mechanismswhich cause tumor, studies of the nature of tumor being hereditary, OncologyImmunology, Oncology Cell Biology, Oncology Molecular Biology, theestablishment  and the application ofexperimental tumor model, molecular diagnosis of tumor. Every chapter has thedescription of research direction and research thoughts. From 10th chapters to14th chapters, the focus is mainly on the description of clinical treatment oftumor including surgical treatment, treatment by the means of internalmedicine, radiological treatment, biological treatment, comprehensive treatmentof multiple subjects, of tumor.

Epidemiology is a clinical medicalscience which researches the causes, regular patterns of occurrence,development and conversion inside human body, with the diagnosis and preventionmechanisms, to reach the purpose of controlling the contagious diseases fromoccurring, developing and becoming pan-epidemic. It is a part of internalmedicine with its own characteristics, as opposed to other diseases within thescope of internal medicine. Because it has clear pathogen and it has the natureof being contagious and pan-epidemic, and immunity after the disease. It hasclose connection with the studies of neurological diseases, microbiology,immunology, parasitology and bio-chemistry and other clinical and fundamentalmedical science.

Gynecology& Obstetrics is a specialised subject which focuses on the research of specialisedphysiological and pathological characteristics of women, including obstetricsand gynecology, two main parts. Obstetrics is a medical subject which is inrelation to the whole process including impregnation, giving birth, with thediagnosis and treatment of all physiological, pathological and psychologicalalteration of this whole process. It is a medical subject which is to assistthe birth of new life. Gynecology is a medical subject which researches anynon-pregnancy related pathological alteration of women’s reproductive systemand the disagnosis and treatment of such kind of alteration. Through thestudying of this subject, students are required to have mastered thefundamental theories, knowledge and skills.

EmergencyMedicine emphasizes on the analytical thoughts in terms of diagnosis andtreatment of serious diseases in the emergency department, the treatmentprinciples of regularly encountered diseases and frequently relapsed/occurreddiseases, from the starting point of serious disease serious diseases in theemergency department; systematic introduction has been done for those diseaseswhich are considered as having the special characteristics of the emergencymedicine, such as sepsis, multiple organ failure/disorder syndrome,recuperation of heart, lung and brain, trauma, acute toxin poisoning, Inaddition, brief description have been done for the analytical thoughts in termsof diagnosis and treatment, new progress of regularly encountered seriousdiseases in the emergency department and regularly adopted techniques inemergency treatment.

Neurology isa clinical medical subject which researches the nervus centralis system, andthe surrounding nerve system and the causes of bone diseases and the mechanismswhich cause the bone disease, pathological theories, clinical symptoms,diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The treatment range covers all sorts ofdisease in internal Neurological Department, for example diseases in relationto blood pipes (Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebral Infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage,carotid artery stenosis, intracranialartery stenosis), contagious disease in the nervus centralis system, tumour,external injury, degenerative disease、disease in relation to self-immunity system, hereditarydisease, disease in relation to toxins, prenatal development deformity,malnutrition, diseases in relation to metabolism disorders and other kinds ofdifficult diseases in the Neurological department.

EvidenceBased medicine requires the clinical physicians not only strive to seek and obtainthe most optimum research evidence, but also take personal professionalknowledge including the pathological and physiological theories in relation tothe occurrence and the development of diseases, and personal clinicalexperience and other people (including experts)’s suggestions and researchresults into consideration; not only have to abide by the regulation and needsof medical practice, but also respect the personal will and practicality basedon the tenet  of “Patients are the mostimportant“, then made a decision in terms of diagnosis and treatment.


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发表于 2012-2-2 22:47:21 |显示全部楼层

English

本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-9-29 19:39 编辑
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! Q( h. ?4 J) e8 R0 T. N1 e对于汉语为母语的中国英汉翻译者来说,英语水平的高低最终还是制约译者发展的关键因素,如英语水平达不到一个高度则很难在翻译结果上有什么突破,翻译经验与语言词汇积累并不是必然化作解决某个翻译实例的能力,译者只有被动地去实现词汇与知识的最大积累。总的来看,翻译人员的能力和水平一直受着作为外语的英语水平的局限,往往只是因为英语水平不够或功力不高以及缺乏相关知识从而难以承担某项翻译工作。什么是这里所说的英语水平?对翻译工作者以及接受翻译训练的人员来讲,这里的英语水平指得是英语语言文字的水平或功力以及英语国家有关的所有各类知识,也就是所谓的所有“英语方面”的内容,因为一种语言必然跟这一语言的使用者及其所在国家有着密切的关系,是一种不可分割的关系。
0 x! j% {5 M  t3 K" VFor those translators involving in the field of English-Chinese Translations whose native language is Chinese, the ability of using the English language is a key factor which would constrain the personal development of translators. It would be very difficult to anticipate a kind of breakthrough in the process of developing translation if the English Level could not be upgraded to a certain degree. The translation experience and the accumulation of vocabulary would not necessarily be converted into the ability of solving the problem of a certain case of translation. What the translator could do is only to passively realise the maximum accumulation of vocabulary and knowledge. Generally speaking, the ability of translators is always subject to the constraint of the English capability. It is usually due to the insufficient English capability and the lack of relevant knowledge which have disabled the translator to complete a certain translation task. What is the definition of English ability that is referred here? For those translation industry workers and students who are receiving training in the translation industry, the English ability referred here indicates the ability of processing English written texts and all sorts of relevant knowledge regarding the English speaking countries- this is the so-called contexts in relation to the English Language as one language does surely have close association with the language users and the country in which it exists. This belongs to a type of relationship which could not be severed.  ) n& @* S1 M' K- o/ Y( i- {) R
    既然对于中国人来讲英语水平决定着翻译水平,那么这对于正在接受翻译训练人员的英语学习阶段来说,就意味着翻译人员的整个职业发展及人生道路上都应以提高英文水平为重点和核心,这样才能算抓住全部“翻译问题”的关键,以及确保时间、精力花费的效率与合理性。这就是意识到中国翻译人员的英语水平决定着翻译水平这一规律的重要启示,有着这样的翻译与英语教学关系的根本性理解就能更好地提高翻译教学及个人翻译能力,同时也影响和促进着英语教学的环节实施,或对英语教学的效果提出更高的实际要求。
6 q1 i2 h3 a9 b5 pSince, for the Chinese people, English level is a constraint which determines the ability of translation, it is to say that, for those students who are in the English learning phase as a part of the process of receiving translation training, the development of English ability should be treated as the key and the most important focus in the development of career and life path of those translators. It is through this which could be said that the key of the “translation problem” has been completely captured and the efficiency and effectiveness of the application of time and energy. This is the result of the most important understanding after realising that the English levels of Chinese translators determine their capability of translations. It is possible to improve the translation training and personal ability of translation after reaching this kind of fundamental understanding of the relationship in between translation and English teaching, in the meantime, it also impacts and improves the implementations of the phase of English Teachings or it may pose a higher practical requirement against the effect of English teachings
- X# a$ N  L. D7 M. q) c1 P9 r    认为英语水平决定翻译水平,是因为在影响翻译水平提高的因素中英语整个水平显得更为突出和重要,这并不是说汉语水平对翻译水平的影响就小,而是说对于整个中国人中的翻译人员来讲“英语水平似乎还不够用”,总是因为英文看不懂而翻译不出、总是因为用英文表达还不确定而翻译不出,正是这样的方面显得相对突出、更急需解决而让人认识到中国翻译人员的英语水平决定着翻译水平。这是一个一般性地概括,在理解的时候不能具体化到某一个译者,因为具体到某个中国的翻译者,可能恰恰因为汉语文字水平不高导致其不能胜任英译汉的工作,也可能是知识的不足而无法理解原文从而不能很好地翻译。但是,总体来讲,中国人对英语掌握和运用程度肯定还赶不上自己对母语那样熟练自如,因此在翻译两个方面要素当中英语这一方面就显得更会是有问题的一端。英语水平绝对不是决定翻译水平和结果的唯一因素,在具体某项翻译任务中,一个具体译者本身的弱项才可能是出问题的地方,才可能是决定翻译成败的因素。
, c  ?, W4 z- d% C- ^! [$ ^0 q, uIt is because of the problem of English language in the respect of factors impacting upon the translation capability has been more outstanding/conspicuous and important which has caused the formulation of the opinion that English level determines translation ability. This does not mean the impact of Chinese capability upon translation is less but it is trying to represent the fact that, for all Chinese translators, the sufficient English level seems to be not present. It is always due to the inability to understand written English and the inability to ascertain proper English representations which have caused the inability of translations. It is because of the relative conspicuousness in this respect which requires urgent action to solve the problem so that the conclusion that English level determines the translation level for Chinese translators has been reached. This is a kind of general summary which should not be individualised to each translator when trying to understand it. Because, if it is individualised to each translator, it maybe due to the inability to understand Chinese which has disabled him to be suitable as English-Chinese translator or insufficient knowledge which has caused him unable to understand the original text properly so that he could not translate properly. But, on the whole, the ability of mastering and utilising English among Chinese people is surely less efficient and fluent than their native language. Therefore, between the two sides of translation, the side of English seems to be apparently more problematic. English level is surely not the only factor which determines the translation level and result. In a detailed analysis of each particular task of translation, the issue which is of weak status for a particular translator is possibly something that would cause problems and that could be factor which would determine the success or failure of translation.  
( j  |" g6 e9 R/ e' l既然我们已经认识到某种意义上英语水平决定翻译的水平,那么我们的英语教学环节就应对这一点做出相应的考虑,对准备翻译培养这一部分的英语教学要有专门的解决方案。只有在作为翻译培养准备阶段的英语教学环节采取措施、有的放矢,才有可能更好地实现翻译培养或翻译教学这一计划,否则在等到翻译教学阶段才发现学生的英语基础不够,那势必造成翻译教学的被动以至没有更好的补救办法,因为学习翻译的首要条件就是比较扎实的语言基础。同时翻译教学环节的招生也应该避免招收英语基础不够的学生,因为在翻译教学阶段已经来不及补救应有的门槛英语水平,否则只会导致翻译教学的失败,培养的学生将来无法进入翻译行业。这一点不仅翻译的教学单位应该明确,考生更要事先有所了解,因为一旦出现翻译教学的失败在教学双方中应该说是广大学生蒙受损失更大。在不具备开始翻译学习所需英语水平的情况下,翻译教学一旦开展将陷于无奈的困境,教师在翻译课上只是加强译例讲解和翻译练习,但是由于学习者的英文起点不够以致译文就是上不了档次,而教师又不能停下来转而为学生补英文,所以这样的翻译教学或翻译专业必然不能顺利实现翻译教学的目标而培养出合格的人才。在目前我国高校纷纷设立翻译专业的今天,相关院校对这一方面问题都应有足够充分的认识,应首先为学生将来的就业考虑,加强英语专业学生在英语教学环节的英文基础培养。
* G" R$ ?  m6 S: C! b% XSince we have realised the point that, to a certain degree, English level determines translation ability, relevant consideration has to be made in our process of English teaching. A specialised solution project has to be conceived for the English teaching process as a process to be followed by translation training. It is possible to realise the goal/plan of translation training or teaching if relevant measures have been taken in the phase of English teaching as a preparation stage for translation training. Otherwise, a situation of the loss of control would be created in the process of translation training/teaching which would render it unable to find a better solution if the trainee’s English foundation has been found insufficient. It is because the primary pre-requisite of learning translation is the solid foundation of languages. In the meantime, efforts have to be made to avoid the enrolment of students who have insufficient English foundation in the process of translation training because it is too late to make efforts to improve the English level to the minimum threshold level in this process and it would otherwise cause the failure of translation teaching and those trained students could not be placed into the translation industry. This is something which has to be clarified in the institution which teaches translation and it also has to be reminded among those examinees before hand. Because the vast number of examinees would usually suffer more as opposed to teachers between both parties of teaching (teachers and students) if failure in the translation teaching has been located. A situation of dilemma/helpless plight would be created in the translation teaching if it has been started without the necessary English foundation. Teachers could only focus on the explanations of translation examples and translation exercises but the translated texts could not be of high quality due to insufficient beginning point of the trainee’s English level and teacher could not stop and start to help the student for his/her English so these kinds of translation teaching or translation major would surely not be able to reach their teaching target and, as a result, unqualified graduates would be generated. Based on the current situation in which more and more tertiary institutions in China have established translation major, those institutions should pay sufficient attention to the problems of this respect. They should consider from the perspective of future employment for the students to re-enforce the rearing of English foundations in the process of English teachings.; c* Y6 r, B4 T& S

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I have copied this article and translated into English. For comments on the original Chinese article, please send email to translatorbj@sina.com.cn, for comments on the translation, please send email to caoyi99nz@yahoo.com,
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发表于 2012-2-3 09:31:13 |显示全部楼层

第一章 翻译概述 第一节什么是翻译

本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-2-4 19:15 编辑
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第一章 翻译概述 第一节什么是翻译

The overview oftranslation

在我们所认知和赖以生存的这个世界,至少有几种主要语言在全球范围内广泛使用,各国之间诸多领域的交流与合作使语言的转换成为了必然,这样的语言转换无疑已有相当的历史,这就是有关翻译的一大事实。那么现在要再谈翻译问题,不言而喻就需要先回答“什么是翻译?”这一问题。实际上,翻译工作作为一种复杂的跨文化语言转换行为,古今中外对其作出界定的人士已经不胜枚举:国外的有美国的奈达和英国的纽马克等,国内的也有严复、鲁迅、瞿秋白、钱钟书等等。那么,从一般的公司翻译工作角度来看,翻译工作又是一种什么样的工作呢?从事翻译工作的人一般都知道,普通公司翻译人员的职责就是完成具体的翻译任务,而并非研究翻译,尽管翻译工作者为了保证翻译水平需要钻研一些翻译的问题,因此笔者这里无意讨论翻译的定义问题,感觉也没有这样的必要。基于这样的思考,在此笔者只从普通译者的角度阐述一下对翻译的认识:对于一般的公司翻译人员,翻译工作就是把一种语言和另一种语言来回转换,作为桥梁实现双方沟通,转换过程中尽量考虑内容的正确完整,意思清楚。这就是一般公司普通翻译工作的基本形式和所谓的操作标准,能达到这样的标准就符合公司的需要,这就是一般公司的翻译工作。
* S! ^, A  N; T7 v( ~: h3 H   In this world which we recognise and depend on for our survival,there are at least several major languages which are spoken widelyglobally. The communications and co-operations among the membercountries in various fields have made the conversion of differentlanguages as a necessary task. This kind of conversion has had avery long history. This is one important fact in relation totranslation. Therefore, when we are discussing the issue oftranslations at the moment, there is something which does not needexplanation to justify its existence that the question of “thedefinition of translation” has to be answered. For this particularquestion, in fact, as a kind of complex inter-cultural languageconversion activity, there have had numerous definition proposed bypeople overseas and domestically from ancient times to right now.For definitions coming from overseas, there are Mr Nida from US andMr Newmark from Great Britain. For definitions generateddomestically, there are definitions proposed by Yanfu, Luxun,Quqiubai, Qianzhongshu and so on. Then, from the perspective of dayto day translation work in a commonplace company, what is thedefinition of translation work? For people who are involved in thetranslation industry, the primary task of those people who areworking in those commonplace companies as translators is tocomplete each individual translation job rather than studytranslations despite the fact that it is necessary to study sometranslation problems for those translators in order to ensuretranslation quality. Therefore, the writer is not interested in thediscussion of defining translation and the writer also feels it isnot necessary to do so. Based on this consideration, the writer isgoing to explain the understanding of translation from a commontranslator which is : For those common people who are working in acompany as translators, the translation work is to switch inbetween one language and the other language as a bridge to enablethe communication in between the 2 parties. Consideration has to bemade for correctness and completeness and clarifying the meaningsof the contents which are being converted in the process. This is the basic form and the so-calledoperational requirement of those normal translations in acommonplace company. The requirement of the company is met if thesekinds of standards could be reached. This is the translation worksin a common company.: q% }3 m/ y$ H: X
那么,具体来说,目前公司里翻译人员的工作情况如何?其实很好理解,口译工作就是口头语言转换,总是用另一种语言重复讲话人的话,让另一方明白他的意思,在会议和谈判中持续这样的转换行为;笔译工作就中文材料转换成外语或反之,包含公司所需翻译的各种内容,这就是普通翻译工作的具体内容。需要指出的是,实际翻译工作不同于课堂翻译练习,从课堂练习到翻译岗位工作还需要一定的过渡适应,教室的翻译规则还需结合工作实际而具体化,这就是理论知识与实践活动的距离。
% Z1 X' r" h8 i( ]3 J: aThen, as a kind of detailed analysis, how is the works conductedby those common translators in the normal company? It is in factvery easy to understand. Oral interpretation is the oralconversions of different languages. It is always required to repeatsomebody else’s speech in a different language so that the otherparty would be able to understand his meaning. These kinds ofactivities are being continuously carried out during meetings andnegotiations. Written translation refers to the conversion ofChinese materials into foreign language or otherwise includingthose contents required by the company to translate. This is thedetailed contents of common translation works. One point whichrequires to be pointed out is that actual translation works do notequal in-class translation exercises. There is a kind oftransitional period to adapt from in-class exercises to translationjobs. The rules of in-class translations have to be adapted to suitthe detailed practical working requirement. This is the differencebetween theoretical knowledge and practical activity.
0 ?, Z% k  Q" \  }另外,本书涉及的翻译问题或有关翻译的观点都是针对普通公司的翻译工作,而非政府机构的政治、外事翻译。再者,本书提到的翻译或翻译问题都是指英语对汉语翻译,不是包括其他外语,因为其他外语翻译涉及的问题可能又大不相同。翻译问题需要具体情况具体分析,不好一概而论。
4 \. t# t2 i2 r# W0 kIn addition, the points covered by this book in relation toissues of translations or opinions regarding translations are allreferring to the translation works carried out in common companiesother than the political and diplomatic translations carried out ingovernmental institutions. As a further addition, the pointscovered by this book in relation to issues of translations oropinions regarding translations are all referring to thetranslation in between English and Chinese. It does not cover otherforeign language because the translation in the field of otherforeign languages may attract sets of problems which may besignificantly different. Detailed analysis is required to solveindividual translation problem. It should not be generalised.
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0 {8 M$ \, k; l' Z, aI have copied thisarticle and translated intoEnglish. For comments on the original Chinese article, please sendemail to translatorbj@sina.com.cn, for comments on thetranslation, please send email to caoyi99nz@yahoo.com,# Y9 j* W% g3 V5 g
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发表于 2012-2-3 13:46:31 |显示全部楼层

socialist

本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-9-12 13:05 编辑
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一、社会主义社会的追求目标是人人平等的享有政治、经济、文化权利。 + T  w, l. n0 x1 J
什么是社会主义?不同的社会有不同的价值追求目标,正因为有不同的追求目标,因此在社会的实际运行过程中也就出现不同的方式。社会是由人组成的,人和人之间的关系分为血缘的、政治的、经济的、文化的等各方面,其中血缘关系是一种低层次的关系,政治、经济、文化是高层次的社会关系。社会大系统在宏观层次上说是由政治、经济、文化三个子系统组成。不同群体的人的社会生活表现为政治、经济、文化三个主要方面。因此,分析社会的价值追求目标,应当从政治、经济、文化三个方面入手。
& D/ q# Y! q8 p0 ]社会主义社会所追求的价值目标是什么呢?从政治方面说就是人人平等的享有政治权利和义务,平等的享有选举权和被选举权,平等的享有参与、管理社会的各项权利;经济上促进生产力的发展和共同生活富裕;文化价值观念上追求实现社会的公平正义以及个人的信仰自由等。这三个方面的内容共同构成了社会主义社会所追求的价值目标。; ?! j8 Q; q7 `; X6 b- Z. N
在政治、经济、文化三个子系统中,经济是基础,政治、文化系统的发展要与经济基础相适应,既不能超越也不能滞后。这里强调“相适应”而非经济基础必然的“决定”政治、文化系统的发展以唯一的状态存在。比如一块钢铁可以制作成门窗、桌椅、设备等等,但不能用以制作直接能吃的食品等等,这就是相适应。也就是说在同一个经济基础上有可能建构不同的政治、文化系统。! C/ ?0 ?: C* P# `
经济的首要问题是财产权利的归属问题。所有制问题从财物出现剩余的那时起就一直困扰着人类。原始社会没有多少剩余物品,人类也就没有这种苦恼,但也没有幸福、安全、有保障的生活,时时处于物质缺乏的危机之中。产生了剩余财富,自然也就产生了归谁所有的问题。奴隶社会、封建社会靠强权霸占社会的剩余财富,政治上也就只能是靠强力维持统治,不可能实行人人平等的享有政治权利,文化价值观念的追求以满足这种统治为目的,不可能追求公平正义的价值目标。尽管在封建社会也有不少“两袖清风,秉公断案”的清官,但他们不可能从根本上改变社会的追求目标。1 w# Z1 E7 m1 h- l3 A# b
财富在今天的社会里依然是稀缺的,拥有财富,意味着拥有了高的社会地位,这不仅表现在个人的消费方面,更重要的表现在对社会运行的支配和影响上。尤其是以群体形式出现的资本家阶级和劳动者阶级之间也就不可能真正的享有平等的政治和文化权利。资本家阶级及其附庸或同盟与劳动者阶级所追求的价值目标的不同或对立,使整个社会的文化价值观念不可能形成一致的追求,实际情况是只能在一定的时期内形成以何种价值观念为主导的文化价值体系。0 @- S, `! X0 U5 U8 h* _# O
马克思作为全世界无产阶级的革命导师,认为社会的一切不平等和不公正起因于不同的人对生产资料的占有不同,资本家阶级以占有生产资料的优势社会地位而剥削工人。他看到了生产资料私有制的丑恶和工人阶级的日益贫困化,因而号召全世界无产者联合起来,消灭私有制经济,建立公有制经济,以便实现经济上的平等而实现政治、文化权利的平等。公有制的建立,消灭了私有制经济的丑恶,却又产生了权力的异化问题。在公有制经济社会里,每个公民不可能直接行使管理公有财产的权力,只能把权力让渡给代理人代为行使,而代理人在运用权力支配财产的过程中产生严重的权力异化。资本家阶级被消灭了,官僚集团产生了,所不同的只是从表面看资本家拥有生产资料的所有权而官僚集团只拥有管理支配权,但在实际上,所有权的四项权能:占有、使用、收益、处分的权利官僚集团全部享有,资本家拥有所有权而拥有这四项权利,官僚集团也拥有这四项权利,所不同的是资本家会珍惜这四项权利的运用而使财产发挥最大的效果,使社会的经济总量增加,而官僚集团则不一定,他们可能因计划的失败不能发挥财产的最大效用,也可能用权力进行寻租而中饱私囊。在私有制经济社会里,工人阶级有可能与资本家阶级斗争,如通过罢工等等争取自己的利益,而在公有制经济社会里,只能期望官僚集团能够考虑普通劳动者阶级的利益而作出相应的安排。官僚集团作为一个整体远比资本家个人之间及其同盟之间的耦合更为紧密,一个企业中的工人很可能与资本家斗争一番,但不可能与官僚集团斗争,只能期望官僚集团的民主,而这种民主往往只是一种美丽的期望。当官僚集团的权力异化走向极端的时候,普通劳动者阶级实际享受到的政治民主权利、经济利益和文化权利,远低于在一个正常发展的资本主义社会所能享受到的水平。私有制经济国家普遍所允许的一定程度的结社、言论、新闻自由以及游行示威、罢工等等在前苏联等公有制经济社会里都是所禁止的。
; K2 k& @1 H# x0 R私有制经济所产生的阶级不平等和公有制经济所产生的集权专制一样剥夺了普通劳动人民的政治民主权利和经济文化权利。对广大普通劳动者阶级来说,是私有制好还是公有制好?这个问题困扰着一切有良知的贤哲们,更困扰着普通劳动人民。. m; g( v* T% L4 p
马克思恩格斯认真的思考着,列宁、毛泽东、周恩来用自己的一生实践着,但最终普通劳动人民都未能实际过上领袖们和劳动人民自己所期望的那种生活。对于“主义”,劳动者阶级是弄不懂的,他们弄不懂也不想弄懂更不可能弄懂,马克思列宁的著作有几十卷,毛泽东也有五卷,现在又有了一些著作,这对每天要工作的普通人来说读一遍领袖们的著作都是不大可能的事情,况且领袖们都未搞清楚的事情,普通劳动者又如何能搞明白?对普通劳动人民来说,他们需要的是实际的生活水平的提高而绝非是实现某种主义。是实际的物质生活和精神生活,经典的社会主义理论也认为社会主义生产的目的是为了满足人民不断增长的物质文化需要,这是社会主义的价值追求目标,如果不能实现这个目的,就不是真正的社会主义。对当今中国社会来说,社会已分化为四个阶级:国家管理人、资本家、中产阶级、劳动者,劳动者站总人口的90%左右。⑴是绝对的绝大多数,这90%的人生活水平好不好将说明社会所追求的价值目标好不好。中国的社会主义应当追求这90%的劳动者阶级享有与其他阶级平等的政治民主权利、生活上的富裕和对文化生活的享受。劳动者阶级如果实际享受了这些权利,其他强势阶级就更不用说了。
. [5 f7 {4 ?) }6 L+ }社会主义在在经济方面的价值目标是促进经济的发展和共同的生活富裕。不论是私有制经济还是公有制经济,劳动人民的富裕都只有可能是生活方面的富裕,即在一般的道德水平下,以保证正常的生活质量为目的正常的生活消费水平的提高和一定程度的满足,不包括对生产资料的占有。在私有制社会,生产资料归资本家所有,在公有制社会,只是名义上生产资料归全体国民所有,但无实质性的内容。5 v- I) k+ b& z% F- d( |6 M# Y' J" l
     
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5 N% g) @; i+ b# j6 w: r' d1.     The goal to pursue in a socialistic society is thatevery member of the society should be co-equally entitled topolitical, economic and cultural privileges.
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+ r0 C0 S, i+ qWhat is socialism? Different society has different goal of valueto pursue. Due to the existence of different targets to pursue,there are different methods to adopt in the process of actualrunning of societies. The society is composed of people. There aredifferent types of relationships between people such as blood,political, economic and cultural and other aspects. Among them,blood relationship is a low level relationship whereas political,economic and cultural relationships are of high levelrelationships. From a macro-perspective, the overall system of asociety is composed of three sub-systems and there are political,economic and cultural sub-systems. The social life of people ofdifferent groups could be subsumed in the three major aspects aspolitical, economic and cultural. Therefore, the analysis of thegoal of value to pursue in a given society should depart from thethree aspects as political, economic andcultural.   
4 `: P1 o; f+ P: a6 p$ BWhat is the social goal of value to pursue in a socialistsociety? From the political perspective, it is every member of thesociety should be co-equally entitled to political rights andobligations, co-equally entitled to the rights to elect and beelected, co-equally entitled to all respective rights in terms ofparticipating and managing the society. From the economicperspective, it is the fostering of the development of productivityand universal attainment of wealthy/rich life style. From thecultural perspective, it is the pursuit of the realisation ofsocial justice and personal liberty in terms of (religious) belief.The contents in these three aspects have altogether established thegoal of pursuing value of a socialist society.
9 m6 L3 i9 v, d6 L9 tAmong the three sub-systems, economic sub-system is thefoundation, the development of political and cultural sub-systemshould be synchronised with economic foundation. Political andcultural sub-system should not overtake or fall behind economicalsub-system. The point to emphasize is the synchronisation otherthan the fact that economic foundation would certainly determinethe development of political and cultural sub-systems so that theywould exist in the status of only one form. For example, a piece ofsteel could be made into windows/doors, tables/chairs and equipmentand so on. But it could not be directly converted into somethingedible and so on. This is called as synchronisation. That is alsoto say, on the same basis of economic foundation, it is possible toconstruct different types of political and cultural subsystems.
% l& S* Z+ ?$ r8 s$ f% \+ n: @From the economic perspective, the primary issue is theallocation of property ownership. The issue of ownership has becomea problem which continuously bothered human beings since the firsttime of the emergence of superfluous possessions. During theprimitive society, people do not have so many things to spare, theytherefore do not have this problem. But they also do not havehappy, safe and guaranteed life style, they are continuouslyexperiencing the crisis in which there is the shortage ofmaterials. After the emergence of surplus possession, the problemof ownership naturally occurs. In the slavery society orfeudalistic society, the superfluous items are controlled by force.Therefore, from a political perspective, rule by force is the onlyavailable option and it is impossible to implement a system inwhich every member is coequally entitled to political privileges.From a cultural perspective, the purpose is to satisfy the needs tomaintain this rules and it is impossible to pursue justice as thegoal of value. Despite the fact that there are numerous uncorruptedofficials who justly issued verdicts, they could not fundamentallychange the pursuing goal of the overallsociety.  
* |% ?, ^  F& n. T% [5 qFinancial possessions are still in great scarcity in thecontemporary society. The ownership of financial possessions meansthe ownership of higher social status. This is not only embodied inthe aspect of personal consumption but more importantly embodied incontrolling or influencing the running of the society. This isespecially so that, between capitalist class and labouring classwhen they have emerged in the form of groups, it is impossible toexpect a coequal sharing of political and cultural rights betweenthese two. The goals of pursuing value between the capitalist class& its allies and members of labouring class aredifferent or opposing against each other. This has precludedpossibilities of formulating a universal pursuit in terms ofperspective on cultural values in the overall society as a whole.In practice, the issue will be what kind of cultural value could beformulated to be the leading system of culturalvalue.
7 H, u1 H" j; d" t- R8 y+ T/ \7 KKarl Marx, as a mentor for revolutions for all proletariat allover the world, believes that all social injustice and inequalityare resulted from the different ownership status of productionmaterials by different people. Capitalist class could exploitworkers because it has occupied an advantageous position whichenables them to possess the production materials. He has noticedthe evilness of private ownership and the gradual deterioration ofthe financial situations of the working class. Therefore, he hascalled for the uniting of all proletariat to destroy the system ofprivate ownership and establish the system of public ownership forthe purpose of realising the co-equality in the respect of finance.As a result, the co-equality in the political, cultural aspectcould be realised. The establishment of economy of public ownershiphas destroyed the diabolicalnessof   economy of privateownership, but the issue of the alienation (corruption) of powerhas been created. In a society with the economy of publicownership, every citizen could not directly utilise the power tomanage public assets and this power could only be delegated to therepresentatives of the citizenry. However, during the process ofutilising the power to appropriate public assets byrepresentatives, the alienation of power (corruption) has beencreated. Capitalists as a class have been destroyed, bureaucrats asa single group have been created. The only difference is thatsuperficially capitalists possess the ownership rights ofproduction materials whereas bureaucrats only control theappropriation rights. But, in reality, bureaucrats have possessedall of the four components of ownership rights which are:possessing, utilising, benefiting, disposing. Capitalists possessownership rights so that they possess these four rights,bureaucrats also possess these four rights. The only difference isthat capitalists would cherish the possession rights so thatmaximum benefits could be extracted from the assets and the overallquantity of social economy could be increased. However, this maynot be true for bureaucrats. They may cause the situation wheremaximum benefit of assets could not be extracted due to failure ofplans and they may also try to adopt the process of rent-seeking tobenefit themselves. In a society which adopts economical system ofprivate ownership, members of the working class may initiateconfrontation with capitalists, for example by the means ofstriking to fight for their own interests. But in a society ofpublic ownership, the only thing which could be done is to expectthat bureaucrats may make some arrangements by considering theinterests of labouring class. As a single group, bureaucrats are byfar more interconnected than capitalistsindividuals.  Workers in an enterprise may bepossible to confront the capitalists but they could not confrontthe bureaucrats. The only hope for them is to expect bureaucrats toimplement system of democracy, but, this kind of democracy isusually a kind of beautiful expectation. When the alienation ofpower of the bureaucrats goes to extreme, the actual politicaldemocratic rights, economic rights and cultural rights enjoyed bythe members of working class are by far lower than the similarrights enjoyed by workers in a normally developed capitalistsociety. Freedom in organisation and speech and news anddemonstration and striking, which are universally allowed to acertain degree in countries adopting the economical system ofprivate ownership, are forbidden in countries like the formerSoviet Union and other society which adopts economical system ofpublic ownership.4 e) V' k! H2 D
The inequality of social class, which has been created as aresult of the system of private ownership, has deprived members ofcommon labouring class of the political democratic and economicalcultural rights (privileges) in the same way as the dictatorialcentral control as a result of system of public ownership. For thelarge proportion of members of the labouring class, is it better tohave the system of private ownership or the system of publicownership? This question has always puzzled those saints orphilosophers, more so to the common members of the labouringclass.
+ V) L% N* M) t1 z; S, @/ lMarx and Engels had been carefully pondering, Lenin, Mao Zedong,Zhou Enlai had used their whole life practicing, But, finally,those members of the laboring class have not been able to lead alife style which is up to the expectation of those leaders and thelaborers themselves. For the issue of principle, those members of laboring class would not be able to understand it.They could not understand it and they have no intention to decipherit and they are even unable to understand it. Works written by Marxand Engels have scores of volumes. Works written by Mao has 5volumes. Now, there have some new volumes. It is highly impossiblefor those common people who have to go to work everyday to readonce works written by those leaders. Besides, how could it bepossible for common laborers to understand those things thatleaders have not deciphered yet? For those common laborers, whatthey want is the improvement of their actual living standardsrather than implementation of certain principles. It is actual lifein terms of material and spiritual dimensions. Classical socialismalso believes that purpose of production in a socialist society isto meet the gradually increasing demands of materials consumptionof the people. This is socialist pursuing goal of value. If thisgoal could not be realized, it is not true socialism. Forcontemporary Chinese society, it has been divided into fourclasses: state management personnel, capitalist personnel, middleclass personnel, labouring personnel. Members of laboring classoccupy the ratio of ninety percent of overall populations. They arethe absolute majority. Whether or not the living standard of thisportion of ninety percent of overall population is good signifieswhether or not the society has a good pursuing goal of value. Thepursuing goal of the Chinese socialism is to enable ninety percentportion of the overall population (laboring class) being able tocoequally share political and democratic rights, improvement ofliving standards and the enjoyment of cultural life with otherclasses.  If members of the laboring class wereable to enjoy those privileges, worries would not have to be on thesame issue for other strongly positioned classes. & G; h  ^/ E, |2 t1 w
From the economical perspective, socialist pursuing goal ofvalue is to foster economical development and improvement ofuniversal living standards. Whatever it is private economicalownership or public economical ownership,  formembers of laboring class, improvement of living standards is onlyable to be referring to enrichment of life styles. The improvementof living standards is the satisfaction to a certain degree andimprovement of normal living consumption standards for the purposeof normal living quality, under the normal moral standards,excluding the possession of production materials. In a societywhich adopts system of private ownership, production materialsbelong to capitalist class. In a society which adopts system ofpublic ownership, production materials nominally belong to all ofits citizenry, but with no practical significance.* z& F6 N4 C2 U) y: P


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The origin of the above article is the following,which is in Chinese:

www.sociology.cass.net.cn/shxw/lwdc/t2008052316857.htm

移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
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发表于 2012-2-4 00:30:36 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-3-12 23:39 编辑 ) b* o1 i5 o3 l# x- h, B# {

9 k6 ~& T8 n4 w6 W6 D: nFundamentals of Translation (translated)
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" K0 {' ~6 r" c6 h8 v( E( U理论
3 z' x8 i' N  }6 X( |& g        分类: E-CTranslation4 x; U2 G6 {7 h

1 E; J) e/ g8 Q; ]+ o" y归根结底,翻译的能力还是受制于译者的语言驾驭能力,尤其是外语的驾驭能力,虽然译者的专业知识与术语对于翻译成败也是非常的关键。英语水平提高的核心是英语文化的内化以及英语语言思维的适应与获得,只有具有了足够的英语文化并获得一定程度的英语语言思维方式才有可能成为熟练的英语使用者,才能在日常工作、学习和生活中说出跟母语者接近的英语,当然这都需要经历漫长的过程。没有足够的语言能力基础,翻译的水平是无法得到保证的,但是这不等于说只需要英语水平高就能做好翻译工作,因为翻译工作还要涉及庞杂的知识以及超大量的专业词汇与术语。实际上,从事翻译工作也需要一定的先天条件,不是人人都可以成为出色的译者或人人通过努力就一定能做好翻译,这正如学习钢琴或书法等其他艺术门类一样也需要所谓的天赋,翻译的练习同样也需要一定的语言方面潜能。
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7 e4 M+ Q  U8 U' e0 C% u: kDespite the fact that the professional knowledge and terminology also play important part in the success or failure of the translation, from the root cause point of view, the ability of translations is still constrained by the ability of the translator to operate a language, especially the foreign language. The key to improve English capability is the internalization of English culture and the adaptation & acquisition of English language thinking methodology. It is only possible to become a skillful user of the English Language and to speak the English language in the way which is similar to native speakers in daily work, study and daily life after the acquisition of sufficient English culture and English language thinking methodology, of course, this requires very lengthy process. The level and quality of translation can not be guaranteed if there is no sufficient foundation of the ability to use the language. But this does not equal to the fact that good work of translation could be achieved solely by advanced English capability due to the point translation work involves very complicated system of knowledge and super-huge volume of terminology. In fact, the involvement of translation profession requires some inborn prerequisites. It is not true that every one can be a good translator or everybody can be good at translation through hard work. This is the same as learning how to play piano or calligraphy and other kind of arts all require talents. The training of translation, in the same way, requires potential in languages.5 N! [" m2 U. d3 {4 j: r

/ b8 X4 x4 a$ ?; @2 z% g: _6 @9 B   英、汉双语水平是英汉翻译能力的根本。要想在英汉翻译上有所成就或达到相当的水平和层次,那么首先翻译受训者应该具有所需的起点语言水平,如果翻译训练过程中再发现学习者语言水平不够,那么解决的办法也只能是回归到打语言基础的阶段,因为翻译的学习此时已经不能继续下去,已不再是翻译技巧和缺乏练习的问题,而是语言水平制约翻译水平提高的问题。此时,这样译者的水平一般只停留于所谓的对译,也就是一种语言解释的阶段:译文语言结构机械,整个译文几乎没有创造性。严格的翻译不是简单的解释,是既要把内容传达过去又把语言风格等语言本身的因素考虑进去并传达过去,是二者合一的语言艺术再创造。
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The fundamental base of the capability of translating in between English and Chinese is the  level of ability of both languages. For the purpose of attaining some sort of achievement or reach a rather high level in the field of translation in between English and Chinese, the first starting point for the trainees is the minimum level of ability in both languages. If, during the translation training process, the language capability of the trainee was found deficient, the only solution to this problem would be to put the trainee back into the phase of improving his/her language capability as the translation learning can not be carried on anymore and it was not the issue of training translation skills and the lack of exercises, on the contrary, it was the language capability which pose to be a kind of constraint against the improvement of translation ability levels. At this point in time, the level of translators generally resides in the phase of so-called reciprocal translation, in other words, it is a phase of language explanation: translated text is structured mechanically and whole translated texts almost have no creativity. The translation in its strict sense does not equal to simple explanation. It is not only the conveying of the contexts but also the conveying of language styles and other kind of factors which relate to language itself. It is a re-creation of linguistic art by combining these two factors.
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没有足够语言水平的翻译学习者,如果照此翻译下去并期望得以长进,那么永远只能保持很不专业的翻译水平,译文语言永远留有明显的瑕疵。因此,未入行的翻译学习者以及在职的翻译从业者都应该从加强语言驾驭能力入手,同时不断学习各类新知识、积极总结翻译经验,然后结合自身和他人的经验和技巧加强翻译实践,只有这样通过长期的努力才能最后实现翻译能力的完善。
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Translation trainees, who do not have sufficient language capabilities, will always dwell on this very unprofessional level if translation is being carried on in the same manner with the expectation of further improvement. The translated text will have obvious defects. Therefore, rookies and current translation workers have to start from re-enforcing their ability of using the language, in the meantime, continuously acquire all kinds of new knowledge, actively summarize translation experiences, then, the translation exercises have to be re-enforced by combining the experience and skill of himself and others. It is only through this kind of long term effort to finally reach the goal of improving the translation capability.3 ~0 ~4 }6 v' `0 A; U. s! \/ ?4 I

2 z" P  S9 H3 e    语言水平是翻译的根本,没有语言水平就谈不上翻译能力。英、汉语言水平是英语对汉语翻译所依赖的根本语言能力,但语言能力本身不足以完成翻译,渊博的知识和术语对于译者已经成为了必须。要想获得一定程度的翻译能力必须先从语言能力上开始,然后以英汉双语的形式对翻译学习者分别输入广博庞杂的知识,这是翻译人员培养要遵循的基本模式。具有初步语言能力的人可以粗略地将简易的汉语译成英语并再现原文的大部分的信息,而只具有一定知识但语言能力不足的人则无法完成这样的任务。因此,鉴于中国的翻译国情,具有一定英语能力的专业知识人士可以从事专业书籍的英汉翻译工作,因为他们的专业知识有助于原文的理解和译文的表达。如果不具备应有的双语水平,那么翻译则无从谈起;缺乏了专业知识,译者只能频繁查阅专业词汇或向人请教。要想获得和提高翻译能力,译者必须从双语能力这一翻译的根本做起,同时兼顾、齐头并进。# G* p! {% ~6 U
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The language capability is the fundamental foundation of translation and the translation capability could not be discussed without language capability. The ability of English and Chinese are the fundamental linguistic ability on which the translation between English and Chinese relies, but the language ability in itself is not sufficient enough to complete translation and it is compulsory for the translator to have bounteous knowledge base and terminology vocabulary. In order to obtain translation capability to a certain level, efforts have to be put on language capability before the inputting of complicated and bounteous system of knowledge in bilingual form (English and Chinese). This is the basic form which has to be compliant with for the purpose of training translators. People with primitive language capability can roughly translate simple Chinese into English with the re-representation of the majority of the information contained in the original text, however, people with certain level of knowledge but with deficient language capability can not complete this kind of task. Therefore, based on the translation situation in Mainland China, professional people with English level to a fairly good level may involve in the translation between English and Chinese of professional books because their professional knowledge may help them to understand the original text and re-representation in the translation. If the sufficient level in both languages has not been acquired, the issue of translation can not be discussed. If the translator is short of professional knowledge, translator has to frequently consult the dictionary or other people. For the purpose of obtaining and improving translation capability, translator has to start from improving his/her bilingual ability which is the fundamental point in translation, and try to look after both sides simultaneously (language and professional knowledge).
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   文学翻译领域印证双语水平是翻译的根本。文学作品是翻译的重要领域,作为语言和思想的艺术品它们体现出高超的文字功力和水平,没有高超的语言能力译者则无法胜任文学作品的翻译。人们不仅仅想知道来自异域语言文化的思想内容,同时还欣赏其语言和风格上的造诣和美感,例如小说、诗歌和散文,人们不仅仅满足于读出原文的基本意思,还要读出其中的幽默诙谐、讽刺夸张、语气节奏等等。而所有这些方面的要素都依赖于译者的译入语言能力而再塑,没有足够的双语水平无法实现准确的理解与完美的表达,可见双语的驾驭水平是文学翻译中文学素养以外的根本因素。实际上,即使是其他普通应用领域的翻译,包括自然科学领域的翻译在内,也不是不涉及双语水平高低的问题,语言的组织、句子结构的安排和措词也无不体现翻译中语言能力上的要求。
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To verify the bilingual ability in the field of literature is fundamental in translation. The translation of literature is the important field of translation. They have displayed superb quality and level of wording selections as artifacts of language and thought. People without superb ability dealing with languages can not be appropriate translators of literature. Readers do not only want to know the thoughts contents of the cultures coming from foreign land but also to be able to appreciate the beauty and quality in terms of its language style, for example, novel, poem and prose. Readers do not only want to understand the basic meaning of the original text but also its humor, sarcasm and exaggeration, tones and paces and so on. All of those factors rely on the target language capability of the translators to re-represent. Correct understanding and perfect representation can not be realized without sufficient level in both languages. Therefore, the ability of operating in both languages is the fundamental factor in addition to the factor of literature accomplishment in the field of literature translation. In fact, even in other common applied fields of translation including the field of translating natural science materials, it is not true that the issue of language capability is not involved. The organization of languages, arrangement of sentence structures and wording selections are all the embodiment of the requirement over language capability.
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    双语水平是翻译的根本,提高翻译能力的首要需要加强语言能力。翻译能力是一种建立在语言能力根本之上的结合行业知识发挥出来的语际言语行为,要获得和提高这样的语际转换能力首先就要具有足够的双语运用水平,然后在翻译工作过程中积累行业和专业知识以及翻译经验,从而逐步完善个人翻译能力的职业化。语言基础训练是翻译训练的第一基本功,常见的通用内容翻译才是翻译的基本功训练内容。The capability of both languages is the fundamental factor in translation. Language ability will have to be improved in the first place for the purpose of improving the ability of translation. The ability of translation is a kind of inter-lingual language activity which takes the language ability as its fundamental foundation combined with knowledge of the specific industry. For the purpose of obtaining and improving this kind of inter-lingual convertibility, the primary focus should be put on acquiring sufficient ability of using both languages, followed by the accumulation of industry specific and professional knowledge and translation experience during the translation process, so as to gradually improve the professionalisation of your individual ability of translation. The training on the foundation of language is the No.1 fundamental works in translation training. Training on translation of regular and general contexts is the training of the fundamentals of translation.# ?+ a) O3 z9 @2 X4 w

: K1 Z: O8 Y1 q没有语言能力做保障,就没有翻译输出的语言质量;没有充分的行业知识与专业术语,则没有专业的准确度和翻译职业水准。因此,做为翻译训练前期准备的英语教学阶段,应该提早严格训练学生语言基本功,有了这样的充分准备才能使以后的翻译训练进行得更为顺利。没有准备好双语水平的翻译实践是无备之战,具有所需双语水平而没有足够的翻译实践也难以从容应对翻译任务和表现出职业水平。这都是年轻的翻译练习者与从业者从开始就应牢记的根本原则,如果翻译道路上没有这样的原则作指导,那么势必就会造成漫无目的、流于空泛的学习,虽经长期翻译实践也难实现翻译能力的实质性提高。而在我们认识并自觉遵循这一翻译行业规则之后,翻译练习者与从业者平时继续坚持语言基础训练,坚持行业知识与专业术语的积累,坚持普通内容和专业内容的翻译实践,这样随着时间的推移译者的翻译水平必定有所提高,翻译范围也有所增加,对翻译这一复杂语际思维活动的特点和本质也认识和理解地更加深刻,也会逐步形成自身的翻译体会和看法观点,也能更好地与同行探讨交流有关翻译的各类问题。
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9 d0 s$ E0 \0 I  O9 D$ b8 vThe quality of the output language can not be guaranteed without the guarantee of language capability. The specialist accuracy and professional standard of translation can not be secured without sufficient industry specific knowledge and terminology. Therefore, as a preliminary phase for the purpose of preparing for the translator training, the phase of teaching the English Language should focus on strict training of good language foundation as soon as possible. It is only after this kind of more than sufficient preparation which will smoothen the translation training phase. Translation practice without good preparation of the bilingual ability resembles a kind of unprepared warfare. The acquisition of required level of both languages not combined with sufficient translation practice will not enable the translator to confidently deal with the translation task and display conducts which are up to professional levels. These are fundamental principles which should be taken into heart for those young translation trainees and professionals from the very beginning. If this kind of guidance is not present on the training path of translation, learning without proper aims and depth will be resulted. The ability of translation will hardly be substantially improved despite translation practice in a long time. But, after the realization of this translation industry specific rules and voluntary compliance, translation trainees and professionals should continue persisting on training of language fundamentals, on training of industry specific knowledge and the accumulation of terminology, on translation practices of common & regular contexts and professional contexts. Overtime, the ability of the translators will surely be somewhat improved, the range of translation can also be expanded. The recognition and understanding of characters and fundamentals of translation as a very complicated inter-lingual thinking activity will be deepened. The feeling and opinions of translation will also gradually be formulated. The ability of communicating and discussing with fellow translators on all kinds of problems which are present in translations is improved.
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7 H$ G2 B2 ?" f5 h  Q3 z. AI have copied this article and translated into English. For comments on the original Chinese article, please send email to translatorbj@sina.com.cn, for comments on the translation, please send email to caoyi99nz@yahoo.com,9 z3 Q& E7 |# Y/ x% P6 W  E; l* j
移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
Level 3, 350 Queen Street. Auckland CBD
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发表于 2012-2-4 17:56:29 |显示全部楼层

John Currings

本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-9-29 19:37 编辑
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Like:他的作品夸张中带点真实(Naturalism,Realism

我发现john currin的油画作品的女性她们样子和体态都是夸张的。大大的头部,窄窄的肩膀,最显眼的就是大的夸张的胸部,像是《The Bra Shop》和《The Magnificent Bosom》。John Currin这种夸张的修饰手法让我觉得很有意思,从他的这些绘画作品中我看到了一些幽默的影子。在我看来,他画中的女性都是真实的生活中的女性,她们不完美,夸张的大屁股甚至有一些urgly。但是我反而觉得她们很美,因为她们真实。我觉得一切艺术形式都来源于生活。我们都是真实生活中的人,只有最真实淳朴的东西,才能引起内心的共鸣,带来最大的感动。

I am fond of his works for the characteristics which refers to the trait of exaggeration with some factors of realism.

I have realised that the postures and body shape, of the women portrayed in the oil painting by John Currin, are all exaggerated, such as very big head, narrow shoulders. What is the most eye catching is the large and exaggerated bosom, such as the ones in “The Bra Shop” and “the Magnificent Bosom”. This kind of exaggerated modification methodology, by John Currin, has made me feel very interesting. I have noticed the existences of some forms of humour by reviewing these paintings by him. From my perspective, the women portrayed in his paintings are women in the real life. They are not perfect. The exaggerated buttocks are even somewhat ugly. But I, on the contrary, felt they are very beautiful because they are real. I thought all forms of arts are from real life. We are all living in real life.  Only those items, which are the most real without extra unnecessary modification/improvement, could attract resonance within our hearts which display our agreeing attitude towards those items and could bring maximum feeling in which we realised we have been moved by those items.

我还喜欢Currin的《the moved over lady》《skinny woman》《Ramona》这一组老女人的形象,也是因为它的真实。她穿着紧身衣,手叉着腰,摆出model的pose。这组作品非常清楚地表现出了这个老女人对美,对时尚的追求。我认为这是一个很真实的,自然地想法。人们对美的认识和追求与年龄大小无关,与身材好坏无关。这让我感受到了currin对现实生活的参透,和独具一格的写实手法。

I am also fond of the paintings of groups of old women by Currin, such as “the moved over lady” and “the skinny woman” and “Ramona”, which is also due to the fact that they are real. They are wearing tight fitting garments/corsets with hands on their waists and posing like models. This group of paintings has clearly potrayed the pursuit to aesthetic beauty and fashion by those old women. I think it is very real and natural thinking. The understanding and the pursuit of aesthetic beauty, by people, have nothing to do with their ages  These also have nothing to do with the fact whether or not they have very good body shape. This has made me feel/ realise the infiltration into the real life and the uniquely styled realism methodology by Currin..

2.       Like:简单的背景

我发现currin的作品都有着非常简单的背景,比如《john stone》《sherry sellars》 《untled》它们大多是一色的,空旷的,干净的,没有过多的修饰。正因为他把背景简化了,才能让我更集中,仔细的去打量和思考画中要表达的主题。这种简化背景,以突出主题的手法非常聪明,是值得我学习和借鉴的强调主题的方法,所以我喜欢它。

I have realised that the paintings by Currin all have very simple background, such as “John Stone” and “ Sherry Sellars” and “ Untitled”. They are usually in a single color/tone with widely open space, clean and having no extra unnecessary modifications/improvements. It is because of the fact that he has simplified the background which has enabled me to review and think about the main theme that the painting is going to express in a concentrated and careful manner. This kind of simplified background for the purpose of making the theme more eye-catching and outstanding is very clever and it is a methodology to emphasise on the main theme which is worth my learning and emulating/imitating. Therefore I like it.

3.       dislike:早期作品人物没有个性

我注意到他的早期作品,像上边提到的<john stone><sherry sellars><untled>这一组女孩的正面肖像画。她们最大的一个共通性就是,目光呆滞,脸上没有表情。即是说,这组画没有对人物的个性进行刻画,这比较像希腊艺术时期中的理想主义,简朴,强调共性,典雅精致。但是我不喜欢这样严谨的理想主义,这太无趣了。我觉得每个人都有不一样的个性,他应该要把她们的个性表达出来,这样这组作品才会生动,富有灵魂,而不仅是一张无趣的正面肖像画。

I have realised the human characters in his earlier works, such as “John Stone” and “ Sherry Sellars” and “ Untitled”, these group of front face image of girls. The biggest common trait among all of them is over the fact that they are all with dull eye glance and no facial complexions. That is to say these groups of painting have not tried to portray the various personalities of those human characters.  This is relatively similar to the IDEALISM in the period of Greek Arts, which is austere and focusing on the universal quality and elegantly exquisite. But I do not like these kinds of cautious idealism. This is too uninteresting. I think everybody has different personality. He should have portrayed their different personality and it is only by doing this so that this group of painting could be made vivid and having souls/resembling living creatures, instead of a boring frontal face image only.

4.       like: 裸体的,古典主义加现代元素(historical style,romanticism)

我喜欢Currin创作的裸女作品,因为她们看上去有点像欧洲文艺复兴时期(renaissance)的绘画作品,像是他的《in the old fence》。我觉得currin的这组作品有着明显的巴洛克风格(baroque art)他的绘画着眼于生命力和个人情感的表达,不同的是,他的作品中并不是王公贵族,也不是神话和宗教中的人物。举例来说,他的作品《sno-bo》女主人公那过分下垂的乳房与背上的行李呼应。而这一切又和裸露的下身,脸上的表情形成巨大的反差。这种mannerist art的手法使这幅没有背景的肖像画更加丰富,充满了目的性和复杂感。还有就是,画中的女人穿上了高跟鞋,胸罩这样的现代元素,使得他的作品更强烈得表达了他自己的主观意识,我喜欢这种古典加现代的表现手法。

I like Currin’s works of naked women because they look like somewhat resembling to the painting works during European Renaissance Period, such his “in the Old Fence”. I have realised that this group of works bears a very obvious characteristics of the style of Baroque art. His painting emphasises on the life living capability and the expression of personal feelings, but the different point is that the human characters in his works are not members of the nobility and aristocracy class and they are also not the characters in fairly tales or religious literatures. For example, in his work “SNO_BO”, the unduly drooping breasts of the main woman character reciprocates with the luggage at her back. But all of these pose to be a huge contrast with the fact of the naked lower part of the body and her facial complexion. This kind of style of mannerist art has made this portrait without background more enriched and full of purposefulness and feeling of complexity. In addition, the woman in the painting has been wearing high heeled shoes and bras, these kinds of modern factors have made his works more strongly portray the sense of his personal subjectivity. I am fond of this kind of portraying methodology of historical styles with modern elements.

5.       like:备受争议的subject matter

我觉得他的主题大多是关于人文的,对于人性的思考和对社会的一些看法或者是嘲讽。他的作品触及到了人的内心,引发深思。

在这些备受争议的主题中,我特别喜欢Currin的几幅油画作品<The Lobster><fishermen>所用到的主题——鱼.currin的这两幅作品中都有鱼,这个鱼非常有象征意义的。在《the lobster》中,女主人公穿着皮草,头上放着龙虾,肩上放着鱼。在我看来,他想要表达这样一个意思:人类充满了物质的欲望,人夹杂在海鲜,white wine,面包,音乐,皮草交织的欲望之中。另外在《fishermen》中,他画了在他的绘画作品中为数不多的男性裸体,在一艘捕鱼船上,男人拿着绳索,裸露的身体交织在渔网中。有此可见,currin一定是想说,无论男人或是女人,都逃不出世俗的大网,欲望的大网,就像鱼逃不出交织的渔网。我喜欢他的要表达的主题。

I have realized that the main themes in his works are mostly humanistic, which is the result of contemplation of human personalities, some opinions and sarcasms of society. His works touched human inner hearts which could engender deep thoughts.   Among all of those controversial themes/subject matters, I am especially fond of the main themes/subject matter, which is fish, in Currin's several oil painting, such as "the Lobster" and "the Fishermen". In the 2 paintings, fish could be found in both of them. This fish has very high value in terms of symbolic significance. “In Lobster”, the main woman character wears leather with lobster on her head and fishes on her shoulders. From my perspective, he wants to portray the idea that human beings are full of materialistic desires. Human beings are being intermingled with the desires interwoven by fresh sea produces, white wines, bread, music and leathers, In addition, in “fisherman”, he has painted a naked male body which is not quite regular among his paintings. In a fishing boat, a man’s naked body interweaves with fishing nets while hand holding a rope. That is to say, Currin surely has been planning to say that whatever man or woman, they could not escape from the secular net to pursue desires, in the same way as fishes are not able to escape from the inter-woven fish nets. I like the main theme he was trying to express.  
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移民局认可翻译专业翻译各类文件,也可以代写书信。Ph:3798802, 0210596237. group125@hotmail.com.   
Level 3, 350 Queen Street. Auckland CBD
You are too literally stupid to be insulted

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发表于 2012-2-4 18:05:23 |显示全部楼层

Karl Kautsky

本帖最后由 group127 于 2012-9-29 19:46 编辑
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/ H: B! j8 @( N/ y) M考茨基的社会民主主义观再思考
- s( k' y) _4 |4 {- b$ e[摘 要]考茨基是第二国际的卓越理论家,但由于苏联马克思主义的影响,长期以来,考茨基一直以一副叛徒的面目出现我们的理论视野中。今天,在苏联的社会主义试验以解体而告失败后,在我们启动社会主义民主体制建设的航程之时,则应当剥去政治斗争的外衣,回归到当时具体历史语境中,客观地考察考茨基社会民主主义观出发点、所针对的问题以及他对问题的解决路径,这不仅是对历史本身的尊重,也可以为我们的民主法制建设之路提供有益的借鉴。2 ?9 G( z2 v% f
Kautsky is an excellent expert theoretician  in the Second International. But due to the influence of Russian styled Marxism, Kautsky have always been portrayed as a traitor for a long time in our theoretical discussion. Today, after the failure of the experiment of Russian styled Socialism which resulted in itscollapse, during our burgeoning process of the construction of Socialist democratic mechanism, the external cover of political struggles have to be removed and focus should be returned to the actual historical contexts at that time and objectively assess the starting point of the Kautsky’s perspective on democratical principles within the Socialist society and assess the problems it targeted and the detailed solutions he offered for those problems. This is not only to respect history in its own right. This may also have educational function in our endeavour to construct the system of democracy and rule of law.
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首先,社会主义是指生产资料和生产目的社会化( socialization) ,这也是“社会主义(socialism) ”一词的基本涵义。这种社会主义是一种理想的经济生产方式,它是为消灭以往一切社会中的剥削和压迫现象而提出的。在以往的社会中,尤其是在资本主义社会中,生产资料集中在特定的阶级手中,他们凭借手中的生产资料驱使着大批饥饿的劳动者按照他们需要的方式为他们服务,为了取得维持生命的生活资料,劳动者不得不将全部的生命用于体力劳动上,从而没有时间也没有多余的金钱用于自己整体素质的提高,因此,马克思主义者将生产资料私有制看作一切剥削和压迫的原因,而且,致力于消灭一切剥削和压迫的社会主义首先就要求消灭私有制,实现生产资料的社会化,从而也实现生产目的的社会化,即不是为了贵族统治者的奢侈享受进行生产,也不是为了资本家无休止地进行财富积累而进行生产,而是为了满足每个社会成员的物质生活需要而进行生产。
  h; I$ o- `' [1 i# t1 ]Firstly, Socialism refers to the socialization of production materials and production purpose. This is also the basic definition of socialism. This kind of socialism is a kind of ideal economic mode of production which has been proposed to get rid of all phenomena of exploitation and oppression in a society. In those previous societies, especially the Capitalist Society, production materials have been controlled or possessed by a given social class. They could force those starving labourers to serve members of this class in the way those members of the class desired based on the fact that those members of the class are in charge of the production materials. For the purpose of securing living materials to subsist, labourers have to use all of their whole lives in the process of physical labour so that labourers do nothave time and enough money to improve the overall qualities of themselves (labourers). Therefore, Marxists ascribed the private ownership of production materials as the reason of all exploitations and oppressions. Besides, the socialism which is committed to destroy all formsof exploitation and oppression requires foremost the destruction of private ownership system to realise the socialisation of production materials and the socialisation of production purposes could so be realised as well. That is not to produce for the luxurious enjoyment of the aristocratic rulers and not to produce for the incessant accumulation of wealth by Capitalists but to produce for the purpose of meeting the consumption requirement of materials of each member of the society.1 H  Z' v# U2 {& K% K& |
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